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Full text of "A memorial volume of the Guilford Battle Ground Company. Organized May 6, 1887, at Greensboro, N.C. It contains a brief history of the battle of Guilford Court House, an account of the organization and progress of the Guildford Battle Ground Company, biographical sketches, and a full account of the Holt monument and its dedication, July the 4th, 1893"

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Guilford Battle Ground Company. 



It ccntains a Brief History of the Battle of Guilford Court House 
AN Account cf the Organization and Progress of the Guilford 
Battle Ground Company, formed to Redeem, Preserve and 
Beautify the Battle Ground; Pictures of the Monuments Erected; 
Biographical Sketches; Poetry w?:itten about the Battle and a 
Full Account of the 


AND ITS Dedication, July the 4th, 1893, a-^d other Interesting 



Reece &• Elam, Power Job Prlnters. 



,^F;^IT^i'v^^ YORK 







J2!^ F^ONBATIO 'g. 


History of the Battle of Guilford Court House-Account 
of the Organization and Development of the Guilford 
Battle Ground Company and a Notice of its Celebrations, 
Monuments, Lake, Springs and Other Improvements. 

Guilford County, North Carolina, was established out 
of the counties of Rowan and Orange in the year 1770. 
Its capitol was Guilford Court House, which was situated 
about six miles Northwest from the present city of 
Greensboro. In 1781 Guilford Court House was quite a 
small village, a mere hamlet of two or three hundred 
inhabitants. Researches fail to inform us of either a 
church or a school house in its limits. There was a 
Court House, a jail, a store or two and a coppersmith 
shop; the latter quite a prominent feature, as all the 
brandy and whiskey stills, for the county, were manu- 
factured there. The most prominent personage of the 
village was one Colonel Hamilton, who owned fifty 
slaves. The Lindsays, the VVhittingtons, Bevills and 
others lived there. There was no cemetery and their 
dead were buried at a burying ground about two miles 
East of the town. 

There was one lawyer named McNairy who li\'ed in 
the village. I can hear of no preacher or doctor as 
being among these primitive people. The neighborhood 
was Whig and it is said that one of their pastimes was to 
hang a tory or two when they needed something to 
enliven the town. The county jail was the common 
receptacle for captured tories so that victims for their 
diversion were generally on hand and not difficult to 


A fine crop had been raised in the year 17S0, and the 
plentifuhiess of provisions was one of the reasons that 
induced General Greene to adhere to this section of the 

The battle of Guilford Court House was fought on 
Thursday, the 15th day of March, 178 1. Lord Cornwallis, 
fresh from the conquest of South Carolina and Georgia, 
commanded the British Army and Major General 
Nathanael Greene commanded the American forces. 

After a great deal of manoeuvring, marching and 
countermarching, General Greene reached Guilford Court 
House on the day before the battle and Cornwallis. who 
was on Deep river, some fifteen miles distant to the 
West, recognizing the forward movement of Greene as a 
challenge to battle, immediately advanced to accept it. 

The American Army consisted, as near as can be 
ascertained, of about 5,668 troops specified as follows: 

North Carolina Militia i ,000 

North Carolina Volunteers 700 

Virginia Militia and Volunteers 2,253 

Regulars of the Continental Army 1.715 

Total * 5,668 

The British Army consisted of something over 2,000 
veteran soldiers, disciplined for war, trained in battles 
on the Continent and in America, equipped with the best 
arms made in that day and led by as skilful and brave 
officers as ever fought under the British flag. 

The American Army was arranged in three lines. 
The first line i,ooo strong were North Carolina Militia 
called out for six weeks service. Their left flank was 
"covered" by Colonel William Campbell's Command of 
Virginians and the North Carolina Volunteers under 

*Schfnek's North Carolina 1780-S1, p 312. 


Major Joseph Winston and Martin Armstrong, with Lee's 
Legion to support them. 

The right flank was "covered" b)- Kirkwood's Dela- 
wares, Lynch's Virginia Volunteers and supported b}- 
Colonel William Washington's Cavalry. 

The second line, three hundred yards behind the first, 
was composed of Virginia Militia urider Generals Lawson 
and Stevens. 

The third line, about four hundred yards still further 
East, was composed of the Continental soldiers. 

General Greene's idea was to cripple Cornwallis by 
means of the Militia and then to defeat and rout him 
with his regulars. 

The North Carolina Militia were armed with their 
hunting rifles and shot guns, without bayonets of course, 
and with but little discipline. They were ordered by 
General Greene in person to fire two rounds at the enemy 
and retreat before the British Regulars could reach them 
with their bayonets. They obeyed this command, man\- 
of them remaining to fire the third round.*' When the 
retreat began it soon became a disorderly rout. 

Colonel Campbell's command was separated, in the 
onslaught, from the first line and after very sanguinary 
fighting was forced South one-half a mile. 

The second line was in turn broken after a most stub- 
born resistance on the part of General Stevens' Virginia 
Brigade. The battle was waged with varying fortunes 
on the left flank where Washington, Kirkwood and 
Lynch long withstood, with sturdy valor, the charges of 
the Veteran Brigade of Colonel Webster. This "cover- 
ing party" fell back in order on the right of the Conti- 
nental line. 

Colonel Webster after defeating the two first lines of 

*Scheiiclv's Nortli Carolina 1780-81, p. 335. 

Militia marched with confidence ag-ainst the Continentals. 
bLit was repulsed with great slaughter by the Second 
Maryland Regiment under command of Colonel Gunby, 
and after he was wounded, under command of Lieutenant 
Colonel John Eager Howard. Colonel Webster received 
a wound in the knee, from a musket ball, of which he 
died on the retreat to Wilmington. The battle here 
raged fiercely but the Continental line being outnumbered 
finally retreated, but in perfect order, from the field. 
The fight between Campbell with his Virginia and 
North Carolina Volunteers on the one hand and the 
Hessians on the other continued on Greene's left until the 
Hessians were being slowly driven back along what was 
then known as the new Salisbury road, in the direction of 
Guilford Court House. 

Greene having retreated and Colonel Lee having 
hurriedly left Campbell's flank without notice and without 
orders, Cornwallis dispatched Tarleton to attack Camp- 
bell and end the conflict. 

Tarleton ordered the Hessians to fire simultaneously 
and under cover of the smoke ot their muskets he charged 
Campbell with his cavalry and scattered this brave little 
band of heroes who never gave way until forsaken by Lee 
and overwhelmed by irresistible numbers. 

No Spartan band ever fought with more fortitude or 
heroic valor than these Volunteers from North Carolina 
and Virginia, who were the 7'erj' last to leave the field of 
battle on that eventful day. 

Greene lost the field but gained the victory, for in 
thirty-six hours Cornwallis began and continued his 
hurried flight from the battle field to Wilmington with 
Greene in hot pursuit of him. 

Cornwallis, discomfited, burthened with his wounded, 
out of provisions and medicines, reached the protection 
of his ships at Wilmington in a condition that warned 

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Site of the Maryland Mojsumemt, 



TIH^f.N F<5UND^T10NS. 

liim that he was not }'et safe. Gathering his shattered 
forces he retreated into Virginia and on the 19th day of 
October, 178 1, surrendered to General Washington, at 
York-town. The victory was won at Guilford Court 
House and independence assured, but the surrender was 
at Yorktown. 

Without Guilford Court House there would have been 
no Yorktown. The fight for liberty began at Alamance 
■on the i6th day of May, 1/7 1, and was virtually ended at 
Guilford Court House the 15th day of March, 178 1. 

It is not intended in this Memorial Volume to give 
other than a brief account of this great and decisive 
battle of the Revolutionary War. If the reader is 
desirous of seeing a very full and detailed account of it, 
from a North Carolina standpoint, he can consult 
"North Carolina i78o-'8i," by David Schenck, of 
Greensboro, N. C. 

The name of Guilford Court House was subsequently 
changed to Martinsville in honor of Governor Alexander 

Rockingham was formed in 1785 from the Northern 
part of Guilford, and this left Martinsville far from the 
centre of the remaining part of the county. In the year 
1809 the Court House was moved, b}' an Act of the 
Legislature, from Martinsville to Greensboro. 

The Court of Pleas and Quarter Sessions met at 
Martinsville on Monday, the 15th day of May, 1809, and 
on Thursday, the i8th, it adjourned to meet Friday, at 10 
o'clock, at Greensboro, where the further proceedings of 
the Court were had. 

This appears from the Clerk's Record, John Starrett, 
Jonathan Parker, Joseph D. Bannett, John Gullett, 
George Swain, John McAdoo and Ephraim Burrow, 
Esquires, constituted this august tribunal. 

Since that time Martinsville has sunk into "-radual 


decay. Its enterprising citizens moved to other towns, 
the old houses rotted down or were removed until at this 
date the only indications of its existence are an old well 
of delightfully pure, cold water, the vestiges of the 
two roads which ran at right angles to each other 
through the town and a depression showing the location 
of the old Court House and a part of the foundation of 
the old jail. 

The ancient site is now in the middle of a field of 
thirty acres owned by James W. Webb, who resides 
near it. 

The battle was fought along the New Garden or 
Salisbury road West of the town. 

In the year 1882 the writer removed from Lincolnton, 
N. C, his native place, to Greensboro, and soon became 
greatly interested in the location and condition of this 
old battle field. Out of a population of 3,000 people in 
Greensboro he could not find a half dozen persons who 
could point out to him the scene of the battle. The 
writer procured Caruthers' Sketches of North Carolina, 
Series No. 2, which contained a full account of the battle 
and a modest vindication of the conduct of the North 
Carolina Militia. This intensified his interest and excited 
his desire to prosecute the inquiry in regard to their 
conduct. He was brought at last to the battle field 
and continued to revisit it frequently thereafter, and by 
the aid of the map in Caruthers' book he was enabled to 
study the positions of the armies and the progress of the 
battle. One lovely Autumn evening, in October, 1886, 
while waiting for a companion on the road, near this 
historic spot, the idea was conceived in his mind very 
suddenly to purchase the grounds and "redeem them 
from oblivion." It was nearly sundown and he was five 
and a half miles from home, but an irresistible and 
impatient impulse to carry out this scheme induced him 




Ex-Gov. A. M. Scales. 




to go at once to see Mr. Emsley Sikes, a farmer, who 
owned all that part of the battle field South of the 
Salisbury or New Garden road. When the twilight came 
he had bargained for thirty acres of the land at ten 
dollars per acre, and the purchase was completed and 
the money paid a few days thereafter. He then 
purchased from the Dennis heirs nearly twenty acres at 
twent)' dollars per acre. No consideration was extended 
to the sentiment which underlaid the object of the 
purchase. The land was taxed at two dollars per acre 
but he was compelled to give the enormous prices above 
mentioned simply because the owners had the power to 
require it. The forest lands West of the highway and 
Cape Fear and Yadkin Valley Railroad were subsequently 

When the two first purchases were made that portion 
of the land was a tangled wilderness of briars, old field 
pines, broom sedge and every species of wild growth 
which comes up on old worn out fields. It was a 
gloomy prospect and an almost hopeless task to under- 
take its redemption and restoration to a state of cultiva- 
tion, but the work has been accomplished and to-day, 
every acre, not scarred by deep gullies, is covered with 
a luxuriant crop of oats which spreads over all its surface 
as a green carpet. All the ancient roads leading through 
it, which had been abandoned for half a century, have 
been re-opened and put in fine order and every promi- 
nent point on the battle field marked. 

A charter from the Legislature of North Carolina was 
procured at its session in 1887 and on the 6th day of 
May, 1887, Friday, J. W. Scott, David Schenck, Julius A. 
Gray, D. W. C. Benbow and Thomas B. Keogh met in a 
parlor of the Benbow House, Greensboro, N. C, and 
organized "The Guilford Battle Ground Com- 
pany." The shares in the Company were twenty-five 


dollars each. A sufficient number being taken the 
persons above named were elected Directors, and the 
Directors having assembled in that capacity elected D. 
Schenck, President; J. W. Scott, Treasurer, and Thomas 
B. Keogh, Secretary. These offices continue to be held 
by the same persons to this date. 

We published to the world the object of our organiza- 
tion and circulars were sent through the mails to promi- 
nent gentlemen of the State soliciting aid. The citizens 
of Greensboro responded liberally and cheerfully, with 
few exceptions, and very soon money sufficient was 
raised to secure the title to the Company of the lands 
desired and a considerable surplus was left in the 
Treasury. The Company hired a dozen negroes, who 
were placed under Mr. Emsley Sikes as overseer, and 
the task of clearing the grounds was begun and vigor- 
ously prosecuted. In a month or two the pines were cut 
down, the gullies filled up with the brush, the roads 
grubbed out and the old fields burned off so that the 
battle field was developed in a very similar condition to 
what it was in 1781. 

We had no State aid until the Legislature appropriated 
two hundred dollars a year to our use, on the ist day of 
February, 1889. Everything was done by the voluntary 
contributions of the Stockholders. We had no money 
to pay a keeper and our necessities were growing serious 
when the Legislature came to our assistance We had 
no means of farming the land and had to be content 
with preventing the obnoxious growth returning again 
upon it. 

The Company now determined to have a celebration 
on the Grounds on Saturday the 5th day of May, 1888, 
the Anniversary of the organization, the 6th, being on 
Sunday. There were fully fifteen thousand people 
assembled on the grounds and the President of the 



1 1 

Company delivered an address on the history and inci- 
dents of the battle. Many distinguished gentlemen 
including Governor A. M. Scales and the State officers 
were present. Great enthusiasm prevailed and a new 
impetus was given to the enterprise. The defence of the 
North Carolina Militia made by the speaker was consid- 
ered satisfactory and the citizens of tlje State from being 
ashamed of the conduct of their ancestors became indig- 
nant at the injustice which had been done them in 

The address was published and distributed all over the 
State and provoked much comment and discussion. 
From this day the success of the enterprise was assured. 

Just before this celebration Governor A. M. Scales had 
caused to be prepared, at the Penitentiary, granite blocks 
beginning with a base of five feet square and running 
up to two feet, in pyramidal form, and nine feet high. 

This granite Pyramid was erected with great jo)' in 
the center of the battle field and hard by the railroad 
and highway where it was visible to all travelers who 
should chance to pass that way. It had inscribed on it 
"Guilford Battle Ground, Thursday, March 
THE 15TH, 178 1," and is known as the 

Battle Monument. 

The first unpretentious monument however which was 
erected on the grounds, was donated by McGalliard & 
Huske, quarrymen, of Kernersville, Forsyth County, N. C. 

It was of granite two feet high and six inches thick, 
set in another base of the same stone, and bears an 
inscription in honor of Captain Arthur Forbis, of Guilford 
County, N. C, who was wounded in the battle and died. 
It is placed at the spot where he fell in the discharge of 
his duty. To Forsyth County therefore is due the honor 
of furnishing the first Monument placed on the Guilford 


Battle Ground. To Governor A. M. Scales is due the 
honor of the second. 

The Press of the State now began to take up the 
controversy in behalf of the North CaroHna Mihtia, and 
the Wilmington Messenger revived an old letter written 
by James Banks to the Fayetteville Observer, from the 
battle field, which he visited with Mr. Caruthers, dated 
November 5, 1855, which was really the first effort made 
by any one to remove the stigma from their character. 
Doctor Caruthers followed this investigation in 1856, in 
his Second Series of '"North Carolina Sketches" and 
produced a strong array of facts, traditions and circum- 
stances in vindication of the Militia. 

Mr. Banks, it seems, was a Scotchman, and a lawyer, 
who lived in Fayetteville, N. C. He afterwards died of 
consumption, in Florida, unmarried. His memory 
deserves to be cherished by every North Carolinian. 

During the year 1888 Mr. William P. Clyde, of New 
York, furnished money enough to place a handsome 
pavillion over a lovely spring on the Grounds which 
added greatly to its attractiveness. Against his remon- 
strance the Company persisted in naming it 

Clyde Spring 

and as such this delightful fountain is now known far and 

The year 1889 showed steady progress. The celebra- 
tion was held on the Grounds May the 4th, with Ex- 
Governor Z. B. Vance as the orator of the day. The 
love and affection of the people of North Carolina for 
this great popular leader was shown by the immense 
audience which greeted his presence. Full fifteen 
thousand people gathered around him and made the 
earth tremble with their applause. This enthusiam was 
heightened by the sympathy they felt for him in the 

Hon. Zebulon Baird Vanck. 

V. S. Senator from North Carolina. 




recent loss of one of his eyes. The people wept and 
shouted and laughed in turn as this great man swa3'ed 
their feelings. Such an ovation was never seen before. 

The Company was specially indebted to the Cape Fear 
and Yadkin Valley Railroad Company for much free 
transportation of material to its Grounds, and this liberal, 
generous, patriotic assistance has continued to this da}-. 
It is not too much to say that without its assistance the 
Company's progress would have been slow and tedious. 
It not only e.xtends free transportation but divides with 
the Company the receipts from its passenger trains on 
celebration days. The present General Manager of this 
liberal Railroad Company, Mr. J., W. Fry, is Vice-Presi- 
dent of this Company. 

During this year, February the 1st, the Company drew 
from the State Treasury its first installment of two 
hundred dollars, which enabled it to hire a keeper. 

This year our collection of relics from the battle field 
increased largeU", and, in addition to cannon and musket 
and rifle balls and swords, W. B. Crews presented to the 
Museum the long single barrelled flint and steel shot 
gun used by his grandfather Caleb Crews in the battle. 

In the Autumn of 1889 a book entitled "NORTH 
Carolina 1780-81," whose author was the President of 
this Company, was published. Its object was to give a 
faithful account of the invasion of the Southern Colonies 
by Lord Cornwallis in 1780 and 1781, and with a special 
view to the part borne in this eventful struggle by 
North Carolina troops, and a full and detailed account 
of the conduct of the North Carolina soldiers at Guilford 
Court House. 

In 1890 there was no public celebration, but there was 
a large Pic-Nic on the Grounds, May the 6th, attended 
by fifteen hundred people. The only ceremony that day 
was a presentation of an oil painting of the President of 


the Company by Mr. David L. Clark, artist, of High 
Point, N. C. The evening of the day was inclement and 
this induced the Company to change their celebration 
day to the 4th of July of each year. 

In June of this year Mr. Leonidas W. Springs, a 
wealthy retired merchant of Philadelphia, a native of 
North Carolina, furnished the requisite means to place 
the handsome paviliion over 

"LeOxVidas Springs." 

In order to make the name appropriate, two bowls 
were placed in the fountain. 

Mr. Springs has gone to his rest but his name is green 
in the memory of all who knew him and it is perpetuated 
forever in the lovely Spring that bears his name. 


In January of 1891, the Company made application to 
the Legislature of North Carolina, through its President, 
for an appropriation of money to remove the remains of 
Brigadier-General Jethro Sumner irum their neglected 
abode in Warren County to the Guilford Battle Ground 
and in February, 1 891, an Act was passed appropriating 
fifty dollars for that purpose. On Saturday, May the 
23rd, 1 891, these honored remains were re-interred on 
the Battle Ground and the Monument re-erected over 
them. It is a quaint old pile and bears this simple 

To the Memory of 

Gen. Jethro Sumner, 

One of the Heroes of "76." 

On the 27th day of May a pretty little granite monu- 
ment and shaft, nine feet high, was erected on the 
Grounds, over the remains of 

David L. Clark. Esq., 

Who has presented three fine Oil Paintings to the Company. 


Captain James Tate, 

which were exhumed near New Garden, (where he fell in 
the opening skirmish of the battle,) and remov^ed for re- 
interment to this consecrated Ground. 

On the 14th day of April Colonel Julius A. Gra}\ Vice- 
President of the Company, died. The loss was 
irreparable to the Company. See sketch of him on a 
later page. 

June, 1891, 

The Museum, 

a handsome little wooden building, was erected on the 
Grounds, and the relics of the battle field were carefully 
transferred to it. 

The architect of this pretty little house was Orlo Epps, 
of Greensboro, N. C. 

The 4TH of July, 1891, 

was a grand celebration with the usual immense con- 
course of people assembled, and many distinguished 
visitors present from all over the State. 

Hon. Kemp P. Battle, LL. D., Professor of History 
at the University of North Carolina, delivered the annual 
address on the life and character of 

Brigadier-General Jethro Sumner. 

General Sumner was one of the earliest, bravest and 
most constant defenders of the Colonies on the many 
fields of battle where his valor and skill were conspicuous 
among the distinguished associates of his day. 

The theme was one to inspire an orator and the orator 
was equal to the inspiration. Doctor Battle's address, on 
this occasion, will take rank among the most learned 
historical contributions of the nation. It is full of 


research, sparkling with humor and touching in its 
pathos. It was a splendid effort, worthy of the conse- 
crated and honored spot upon which it was delivered. 
North Carolina may well be proud of her Sumner and 
her Battle. 

This address was published and widely distributed 
among the public libraries of the Union. 

This celebration was one of the most interesting of the 
series and the citizens of Greensboro vied with each 
other in providing the means to make it memorable ini 
history. . 


This year was noted for permanent improvements. 

Lake Wilfong 

was constructed by damming up the beautiful little 
rivulet that courses through "Spring Vale." 

It is fed by five springs of pure water lying beneath its 
bosom and was called in honor of the President's wife 
Sallie Wilfong Schenck, who took her patronymic from 
John Wilfong, her great-grandfather, who was wounded 
at King's Mountain and was conspicuous for bravery at 
Eutaw Springs. 

The annual celebration was held this year on the 4th 
of July and the address was delivered by the Hon. Walter 
Clark, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of North 
Carolina, on the life and services of 

Colonel William R. Davie, 

who w-as on General Greene's staff and an active par- 
ticipant in the battle. 

This address, like everything emanating from the pen 
of Judge Clark, was e.xquisitely beautiful, chaste and 
scholarly. The portrayal of the brilliant career of 


Colonel Davie as a cavalry officer, and of his life as a 
statesman and founder of our University, was charming 
and instructive. It was published by the Company and 
placed in the public libraries as another splendid contri- 
bution to North Carolina history. North Carolina has 
only begun to realize the obligations she owes this 
eminent citizen for his researches in her behalf If spared, 
through his arduous and self-imposed labors, the history 
of North Carolina will be touched anew with the splen- 
dor of his pen and shine forth as the brightest among 
the galaxy of her sister Colonies. 
In June the large 

Restaurant Building 

sixty by thirty feet was erected on the grounds, at which 
refreshments are served to the vast throngs who attend 
the celebrations. 

To the Museum was added an ancient musket carried 
by John Widener, of Lincoln county, N. C, at the battle 
of King's Mountain and a rifle supposed to have been 
carried by Jesse P'ranklin in the battle here. 

On the 15th day of October the 

Maryland Monument 

was unveiled. It is an immense granite block, cube 
shaped, on which are imbedded two handsome bronze 
tablets, the one exhibits the Coat of Arms of that State, 
the other a suitable inscription in honor of the Maryland 
soldiers who were slain in this battle. 

A learned address was delivered by Professor Edward 
Graham Daves, of Baltimore, who presented the Monu- 
ment and it was accepted on behalf of the Company by 
Professor A. h'. Alderman, whose address was a finished 
gem of rhetorical beauty. Both of these addresses have 
been printed for distribution. 

Professor Daves has been an enthusiastic, efficient and 
constant friend of the Company and is an honorary 
member of it. To him is due the credit of the erection 
of the Maryland Monument. 


The most impressiv^e, elaborate and wonderful celebra- 
tion was that of the 4th of July, 1893, when thousands 
and thousands of citizens assembled to witness the 
splendid ceremonies attending the dedication of 

The Holt MonuiMEXt. 
The account of this magnificent display is given on 
subsequent pages. 

Tomb of Captain Daves. 

The remains of Captain John Daves, of Newbern, N. 
C, who belonged to the North Carolina Continental line 
and was attached to General Sumner's regiment three 
years under General Washington and afterwards pro- 
moted for gallantry at Eutaw Springs, September 8th, 
1781, were removed to the Battle Ground June, 1893. His 
tomb was re-erected over his body by the Company. It 
is a handsome Marble Memorial. See further in regard 
to it in this volume. 

The Company now owns sevent}--five (75) acres of the 
battle field on which transpired nearly all the important 

The collection in the Museum is extremely interesting 
and would do credit to a great city. Almost every 
species of the military weapons of that day are in its 
cases. Curios from this and other battle fields are pre- 
served. Thousands of people visit it every year. 


President of tJie Guilford Battle Ground Company. 
November 4th, 1893. 

Holt ^Monument, July 4, 1893. 





History of the Holt /Wonument. 

In February, 1893. the President of the Company 
appeared before the Legislature of North Carolina and 
asked for the increase of the annual appropriation to the 
Company from, two hundred to five hundred' dollars. 
The Bill for that purpose passed the Senate by a decisive 
vote but it only secured a majority of one in the House 
of Representatives, and by a Supplemental Bill the Act 
did not go into effect until 1895. 

This was a sad blow to the Company, but such was the 
clamor in the State for economy that it was almost 
impossible to secure an appropriation for any object 
however worthy it might be. 

The heart of the President had been set upon the hope 
of obtaining money enough from the State to erect a 
North Carolina Monument, but this hope had been 

Having business at Alainance Superior Court, Spring 
Term, 1893, the thought of seeing his friend Governor 
Thomas M. Holt occurred to the mind of the writer and 
with this transient thought came the associated idea of 
appealing to him to give us out of his abundance the 
money to accomplish the object so dear to the friends of 
the Company. An opportunity was sought at the earliest 
convenience to la)- this scheme before our patriotic 
Governor. His sympathy was aroused at once and after 
making practical inquiries as to the probable cost, he 
promised to give the matter favorable consideration. 
His heart was touched and his generous hand was in 
unison with it. In a few days came the welcoine 
response by letter that he would erect the Monument at 


his own expense. It was a joyous moment for the 
President. With this noble response came the request 
that the writer would choose the design and deliver the 
dedicatory address. The conditions were accepted. A 
plan, in the rough, was adopted and submitted to Mr. 
Orlo Epps, architect, of Greensboro, N. C. who put it 
into shape and furnished the drawing. The Mount Airy 
Granite Company agreed to furnish the granite at cost 
price and the work was soon under contract. Bureau 
Brothers, of Philadelphia, took the contract for the 
bronzes and finished them with artistic taste. By the 
4th day of July, 1893, 

The Holt Monument 

was ready for dedication and fifteen thousand people 
assembled on the Battle Ground to witness the cere- 

The account that follows will portray what a glorious 
day it was in the history of North Carolina. 



To the "Charlotte Observer" of the Celebration at Guilford Battle 
Ground, July 4th, 1893. 

An immense concourse of patriotic North Carolinians 
has gathered here to-day, on this, the 117th anniversary 
of the Declaration of Independence, to witness the 
unveiling of the Monument erected by Governor Thomas 
M. Holt to the memory of the North Carolina troops, 
who here, on March 15th, 1781, under Major Joseph 
Winston, fought the Hessians and Tarleton's Cavalry 





after the Continental line had retreated from the field of 
battle. It is estimated that there were 15,000 people 
present. There could not have been less. 

Shortly after 1 1 o'clock the line of march was formed 
at President Schenck's headquarters. Twenty mounted 
Marshals, all splendid physical specimens, took the lead, 
dressed in Continental uniform, under command of Chief 
Marshal Charles O. McMichael. They formed an exceed- 
ingly pretty picture. 

Following them came the Lexington Silver Cornet 
Band, of sixteen pieces, which discoursed the sweetest 
music as the procession moved forward. The orator of 
the day, chaplain and distinguished guests in carriages 
followed, and after them the Charlotte Naval Battalion, 
North Carolina Confederate Veterans and members of 
the Guilford Battle Ground Company. The procession 
moved along through the beautiful groves and grounds, 
passing by Leonidas and Cl)'de Springs, and winding 
around the almost crystal-clear Lake Wilfong, passing 
under the Arch of Welcome, its pillars wrapped in the 
national colors, and the Arch proper bearing on one 
side:- "The Old North State Forever," and on the 
reverse: "Carolina, Heaven's Blessings Attend Her," 
and arriving finally at the speaker's stand in a shady 
grove on the Eastern side of the field. During the 
march Judge Schenck's youngest son, Paul Wilfong 
Schenck, about twelve years old, rode proudly by the 
side of the carriage containing Ex-Governor Holt and 
his distinguished father. This patriotic \-oungster looked 
exceedingly handsome in his bright blue Continental 
uniform, and he sat upon his spirited animal with an 
hereditary gracefulness that reflected credit upon the 
horsemanship of his Revolutionary ancestors who rode 
after Campbell, McDowell or Sevier. One of this young 
man's ancestors on his mother's side, named Jt)hn 


Wilfong, disting-uished himself in the battles of King's 
Mountain and Eutaw Springs. 

Rarely is such a distinguished group of North Caro- 
linians seen together at one time. Any State in the 
Union might have been proud of the possession of such 
sons and daughters. 

On the stand were: Governor Elias Carr; Chief 
Justice James E. Shepherd, of the State Supreme Court; 
President George T. Winston, of the University; Justice 
Walter Clark, of the State Supreme Court; Dr. Kemp P. 
Battle and Professor E. A. Alderman, of the University; 
Judge Jesse Franklin Graves, of the Superior Court; 
Assistant Bishop Joseph B. Cheshire, of the Episcopal 
Church; Rev. Dr. T. H. Pritchard, of the Baptist Church, 
Charlotte; Hon. C. B. Watson, of Winston; Editor John 
R. Webster, of Webstei-'s Weekly; Colonel Thomas B. 
Keogh, Colonel James E. Boyd the venerable octogena- 
rian, Robert M. Sloan, and Dr. D. R. Schenck, of 
Greensboro; S. Wittkowsky, Esq., of Charlotte; and 
Mrs. George T. Winston and Mrs. David Schenck. with 
Miss Rebecca B. Schenck and Lucy Bevens, of 
Greensboro; Graves, of Mt. Airy, and Williamson, of 

Among the audience were many prominent people. 
Among others the Observer caught sight of Professors 
Stephen B. Weeks, J. A. Holmes and Henry Louis 
Smith. There were bright-eyed maidens, manly youths, 
winsome matrons, strong, intelligent men in the prime of 
life; others who have climbed the hill of life, and 
descended far on the other side, on whose heads "the 
snow that never melts had fallen." But the central 
figures that towered above all others on this occasion 
and who were the cynosure of all eyes were E.x-Governor 
Thomas M. Holt, through whose munificence the Monu- 
ment to be unveiled was erected, and that patriot of 

Col. Joseph M. r^IoREHEAD. 

Director G. B. G. Company. 





patriots and typical North Carolinian, the Hon. David 
Schenck, but for whose untiring labors this "Mecca of 
patriotism" — to quote Dr. Pritchard's felicitous ex- 
pression — the Guilford Battle Ground would never have 
been reclaimed from the rank weeds that grew where 
heroes shed their blood, and but for whose unremitting 
studies some of North Carolina's grandest men would 
have remained — with the flight of time — "unwept, 
unhonored and unsung," and a shameful lie perpetuated 
in history. Yes, these were the two men that this truly 
representative assemblage had gathered to honor. 
Beauty, youth, chivalry, age, genius and intellectualit)' 
had come together to kneel and worship at the shrine of 

Colonel Joseph Morehead, of Greensboro, acted as 
master of ceremonies, yie first introduced Rev. Dr. T. 
H. Pritchard, who made the opening prayer. 

Judge Schenck was then introduced. He arose, lean- 
ing upon his long staff. For the first time in four weeks, 
he said, he had left a sick chamber. There was a stoop 
in his great, broad shoulders and feebleness in his step 
as he came to the front of the platform. He asked that 
he might be excused if he should break down before he 

But it soon became apparent that there was no danger 
of this. The old lion was aroused. As he progressed in 
his defense of the much slandered North Carolina troops, 
who participated in the fight at Guilford Court House, 
he forgot that he was a sick man. At the first mention 
of the criminal injustice done to our soldiers in this 
engagement by historians, a feeling of righteous indigna- 
tion pervaded the whole being of the speaker. It sent 
the blood tingling to his very finger tips; it brought the 
fiery flash to his eye. There was no longer the stoop in 


his shoulders, the halt in his gait. In thunder tones he 
denounced the slanderers. 

Every intelligent North Carolinian knows that Judge 
Schenck is a patriot. Every page of his History glows 
with patriotism and love of the Old North State. The 
existence of the Guilford Battle Ground Park is a constant 
proclamation of this fact. But nobody can ever realize 
how patriotic — how intensely, thrillingly patriotic — Judge 
Schenck is until they have seen him and heard him 
speak. When once >-ou have heard him pour forth with 
fiery eloquence the emotions of a heart overflowing with 
love for his State; when once you have seen the impulsive 
tears gush to his eyes as he concludes some sentence 
with the words— "North Carolina, God bless her"— you 
can't be very much of a man if you don't find yourself 
feeling for your handkerchief to get the mist out of your 
own eyes. The name of Schenck will never cease to be 
a synonym for patriotism in North Carolina as long as she 
is a sovereign State. 

Judge Schenck felt it necessary to cut his speech short. 
His conclusion was very pathetic, as he thanked Governor 
Holt for his great heartedness in building this Monument 
on the spot where North Carolina troops made the last 
stand at Guilford Court House, after General Greene had 
retired from the field, thus leaving them to face the 
Hessians and Tarleton all alone. He felt now that the 
desire of his heart had been accomplished, and he could 
now say, in all reverence, like old Simeon, "Lord, now 
lettest Thou Thy servant depart in peace." (Judge 
Schenck's speech will be published in full in next Sunday's 

After Judge Schenck had concluded his magnificent 
address, Ex-Governor Holt was introduced, and his 
appearance was greeted with great applause. Governor 
Holt said that he had not come prepared to make any 


set speech, but he hoped the audience would excuse any 
egotism on his part if he said, pointing to the Monument, 
"The erection of that Monument is the proudest act of 
my life." (Great applause). "Read the inscription on 
that Monument with one exception (that relating to him- 
self). It is a better speech than lean make." Governor 
Holt said, "If there is any people on the face of the 
American soil entitled to celebrate the Fourth of July it 
as the people of .Alamance and Guilford counties." (Great 
applause). He had been taught, he said, in his school 
days that the Rexolution was begun at Concord and 
ended at Yorktown, not a word of which was true. It 
began with Alamance and ended practically at Guilford 
Court House. (Applause). 

"I had rather have posterity read that I erected that 
Monument," concluded Governor Holt, "than have the 
Governorship to the end of my life." (Great applause). 

Professor E. A. Alderman, then read, with fine 
expression, the beautiful poem of Professor Henr\* 
Jerome Stockard, who, to the great regret of all, was 
unable to be present. 

The Ohscr'i'cr regrets that the space is lacking to make 
deserved comment upon the patriotic speeches of the 
following distinguished gentlemen: Governor Klias Carr, 
Chief Justice Shepherd, President George T. Winston, of 
the Universit)'. Justice Walter Clark, Dr. Kemp I\ Battle, 
Assistant Bishop Cheshire, and Judge Jesse Franklin 
Graves, a grandson of Captain Jesse Franklin, who fought 
in the battle. 

The Monument was then unveiled, upon the signal 
fired by the howitzer of the Charlotte Naval Reserve, 
Lieutenant J. Frank Wilkes. The unveiling was done b}' 
four beautiful young ladies, daughters of North Carolina, 
Miss Carrie Holt, of Graham, a niece of Governor Holt; 
Miss Mary Moore Young, of Charlotte, a niece of Mrs. 


Governor Holt, and Misses Lucy Bevens and Madelme 
Douglas, of Greensboro, the two former selected hy 
Governor Holt and the two latter hy the President of the 
Rattle Ground Company. 

The Monument is made of Surry County granite and 
is very handsome. On the three faces of the Monument 
are bronze tablets bearing the following inscriptions: 














Palmavi qui meruit ferat. 



On the fourth face the Coat of Arms of North Carolina 
is embedded. 

In the afternoon Hon. Cyrus B. Watson, of Winston, 
delivered a splendid address to the old veterans. The 
picture he painted of the battle fought on the ground 
where they stood was intensely thrilling. 

The Guilford Battle Ground Company was organized 
May 6, 1887, with Hon. D. Schenck, President; and 


Messrs. J. W. Scott, Julius A. Gra}', D. W. C. Benbow 
and T. B. Keogh, Directors. 

Judge Schenck was shortly before this out on the battle 
field obtaining data for his book. The place was over- 
grown with briars and weeds. One of his sons was with 
him, assisting him in his work. The idea suddenl\' 
flashed into his mind that this would be the place for the 
establishment of a park as a place to commemorate the 
jjlorious deeds of North Carolina's sons in the Revolution, 
He immediately went to the owner of the property and 
asked his price for it. He was told $10 an acre. The 
owner paid only $1.50 an acre for it. However, Judge 
Schenck at once bought a large portion of the property. 
He went to Greensboro and organized the Guilford Battle 
Ground Company. Other portions of the battle field 
were soon afterwards bought and the place gradualU' 
cleared off and made the lovely park it now is. 

There are Monuments to the memory of General Jethro 
Sumner; to the Maryland Heroes, erected by the Mary- 
land Historical Society and presented by Professor 
Graham Daves, of Baltimore; to Colonel Arthur Forbis 
and Captain James Tate, who were killed here. 

The Clyde Spring on the ground is called for Mr. W. P. 
Clyde, of New York, who gave the money to adorn it, 
Leonidas Springs is called for Leonidas W. Springs, of 
Philadelphia, who was a native of Mecklenburg 

There are seventy-five acres in the grounds and the 
State appropriates $200 annually towards keeping up the 

The citizens of Greensboro contribute freely to the 
Company every year. 



Guilford Battle Ground, 
The Fourth Day of July, 1893. 


Presented by that noble North Carolinian, 

Governor Thomas M. Holt. 

Sunrise Gun from twelve pound Howitzer of Charlotte Navai 

The procession will form at precisely 11 o'clock A. M., at the 

President's headquarters in the following order: 

Twenty mounted Marshals dressed in Continental Uniforms under 

command of Chief Marshal, Charles O. McMichael. 

Lexington Silver Cornet Band — Sixteen pieces. 

Orator of the day. Chaplain and Distinguished (Quests in Carriages. 

Naval Battalion. 

Bicycle Brigade. 


Members of Guilford Battle Ground Company. 

Citizens Generally. 

The line of procession will be by way of Lake Wilfong to the 
Speaker's Stand near the Holt Monument. 


the dedication ceremonies will be as follows : 






Prayer by Rev. T. H. Pritchard, D. D. 

Address by Hon. David Schenck, 

President of the Guilford Battle Ground Coni])any. 

Poem by Prof. Henry J. Stockard. 

Short Speeches by Distinguished V^isitors present. 


I'nveilino- the .Monument by four young ladies in White, Red and 

Blue. ' 

Signal Gun, 
Return to the Station for Dinner. 
AT 2:30 o'clock, p. m. 
The Confederate Veterans' Union will meet at the Grand Stand, 


Prayer by Chaplain. 

Addr-ss by Hon. Cyrus B. Watson of Winston, N. C. 

After the meeting the Ceremonies of the Day will be closed by a 

SJofnal Gun. 

JOSEPH M. MOREHEAD, Master ok Cere.monies. 


Dedication Ceremonies. 

The immense throng of people having marched from 
the raih'oad station to the speaker's stand, near the Holt 
Monument, the following proceedings took place: 

Mr. Joseph M. Morehead, Master of Ceremonies, arose 
and said: 

Gentlemen and Ladies: 

It is with peculiar propriety that we should open the 
exercises here to-day with grateful acknowledgments to 
Almighty God (our God and the God of our fathers long 
ago) for the inestimable blessings of liberty, civil and 
religious, which we are permitted to enjoy. We will 
now be led in prayer by the Chaplain, Rev. Thomas H. 
Pritchard, D. D., of Charlotte, N. C. 

Prayer of Doctor Pritchard. 

'T.ord, Thou hast been our dwelling place in all gen- 
erations. Before the mountains were brought forth or 
ever Thou hadst formed the earth and the world, even 
from everlasting to everlasting Thou art God." We 
recognize Thee as the Author of our being and the 
Source of all our mercies, and we come before Thee this 
day with gladness in our hearts and praise upon our lips. 
We thank Thee that in Thy infinite wisdom Thou didst 
detennine to create man; that Thou didst honor him by 
making him in Thine own image; that Thou didst endow 
him with lofty capacities of mind and heart, "crowning 
him with glory and honor, making him but a little lower 
than the angels." We thank Thee for the good Provi- 
dences by which the race has been preserved through all 
the perils and vicissitudes of the ages. We are profoundly 
grateful unto Thee, O Lord God Almighty, that Thou 
hast revealed Thyself unto Thy highest earthly creation. 

man, as a God of Merc)', as a God of Truth, as a God of 
Glory, as a God of Power as well as of Justice; and O 
Lord we pray that there may be given unto us grace 
at all times to look to Thee as the great Object of 
worship, as the Being whom we should honor and whose 
blessings we should ever ask upon ourselves. We are' 
here to-day as the representatives of the people of this 
great commonwealth, on this the day that is sacred 
to the memories of the American people, to honor Thy 
great name for the kindly interpositions of Thy Provi- 
dence in behalf of our own people. As Thou didst 
call Abraham in the olden time and make him the 
head of a great people whom Thou didst foster and 
cherish and educate to be the religious teachers of the 
world for all time, so do we humbly believe that Thou 
ciidst call the Anglo-Saxon race in the long ago, 
in the wild forests of Germany, to be the great 
teachers of civil and religious libert)' to the world. Thou 
didst imbue their minds with a personal sense of inde- 
pendence, with a love of freedom, with a sacred regard 
for personal rights, and Thou didst so cherish these 
principles in their lives and characters, developing them 
under the higher and better auspices of English Govern- 
ment, until the full flower of those principles found their 
fulfilment and glorious development in these United 
States. Thou didst bring a people here prepared by Thy 
own hand, possessing conscientious convictions of right 
and duty and didst establish them, removing the Red 
People who were here before them, and the savage wild 
beasts that inhabited man}' parts of the country. As Thou 
didst drive out the Canaanites and the savage wild beasts 
from the Holy Land, so didst Thou prepare a countr}' 
the most attractive, the most beautiful and the most fer- 
tile, possessing higher and better natural advantages than 
any other part of the whole earth, as the chosen home of 

Thy peculiar people. O Lord, we do thank Thee for the 
Puritan and the Cavalier; we thank Thee for Washington 
and for Jefferson and for Madison and for Hamilton and 
for Greene and for Sun>ner and for Davie and for 
Marion and for the many other heroes who distinguished 
themselves on fields of battle in the contest for freedom. 
We cherish the memories of our fathers who fought and 
bled and died on this consecrated spot, and we are 
gathered here to-day as their descendants with our 
hearts filled with the inspiration of patriotism, to erect a 
Monument to their memories and to cherish in sacred 
honor their names and their achievements. We thank 
Thee that Thou didst put it into the heart of one of Thy 
servants to devote time and wisdom and energy and 
great labor to the upbuilding of this place and for the 
increase of interest on the part of our people to make 
this a Mecca of Patriotism and a holy shrine for the 
hearts of the people of North Carolina. We rejoice that 
Thou didst put it into the heart of one of Thy servants — 
Thy patriotic servant — to erect this Monument which we 
are to-day to unveil, and which has brought so many of 
these. Thy servants, here to-day, with glad hearts and 
eager lips, ready to praise Thee for all Thou hast done 
for us as a people in the past The Lord preserve the 
lives and the Lord bestow help upon these Thy servants 
who are brought by the spirit of patriotic inspiration 
before us to-day. May Thy benefits rest upon Thy ser- 
vant, the Governor of this commonwealth, who honors 
this occasion with his presence, and all these, the men 
and women of patriotic North Carolina, who are gathered 
here to honor this sacred occasion. And now, Lord, we 
pray Thee that as Thou hast given us the early rain, maj^ 
we also have the latter ; may the labor of the husband- 
man be rewarded and his harvest be seed to the sower 
and bread to the eater, and may our hearts be filled with 


food and gladness. Bless the President of these United 
States and his appointed counsellors. Bless all men of 
authority everywhere in our land, and especially in our 
own beloved Old North State. Give us peace within our 
borders, give us prosperity in our homes and give us the 
God of our fathers as our God and the Sabbath day which 
they honored as our day of rest and worship. O Lord 
God of infinite wisdom we pray Thee to preserve in their 
integrity the civil and religious institutions of this land. 
May we be as a lamp to the world in the teaching of 
these great and beneficent principles, and may the God 
of our fathers be our God henceforth and forever. May 
it please Thee that all the exercises of this day shall be 
conducted in order and with propriety, and redound to 
the peace and happiness of all here assembled, and to 
Thy glory and honor. And now, great God, the Father 
of us all, the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, 
look upon us as an assembly of Thy own creatures, 
command Thy gracious benediction upon us to-day; may 
Thy banner of love float over us and our hearts go out 
in a melody of praise to Thee for Thy great goodness 
and mercy unto us. Hear us, O Lord God Almighty, we 
humbly ask in the name and for the sake of Jesus Christ, 
our Advocate and Mediator. Amen. 

Mr. Morehead then said: 

'Tt is said that the attempt to smooth the ice, to paint 
the lily or to add perfume to the violet is an impossible 
task. Remembering as we do that six years ago this 
Park of nearly one hundred acres was a desolate and 
tangled waste, and then looking abroad from this stand 
to-day at its carefully preserved groves, its sparkling 
waters, its sodded slopes and the stately Monuments that 
crown its knolls, it seems indeed a work of supereroga- 
tion to introduce here, as I now do, the inspiring cause 
of it all, the President of the Guilford Battle Ground 
Company, the Hon. David Schenck. 



At the Holt Monument Unvelling--An Eloquent and Convincing Argu- 
ment that North^CaroIlna Volunteer Riflemen from Wilkes, Surry, 
Stokes, Forsyth and Guilford Were the Last Soldiers to Leave the 
Battle Field of Guilford Court House--A Tribute to the Patriotism 
of Ex-Governor Thomas M. Holt—The Address Delivered on the 
Guilford Court House Battle Field, July 4th. 

Ladies and Gentlemen: 

On three of the faces of the beautiful and imposing 
granite Monument in front of us are securely attached 
three bronze tablets bearing the following inscriptions: 











MARCH THE I5TH, 1781. 




Pahnani qui meruit ferat, 




At the personal request of Governor Holt, whose noble 
benefaction has enriched the Guilford Battle Ground 
Company, and enabled it to take history from the fleshy 





•■JTOR, l-SN«X AN» 
^•^■H F«UN»ATI0N8. 



tablets of man's memory and chisel it in granite and 
bronze, I am here to vindicate and maintain the truth of 
the assertion that the North Carolina Volunteer Riflemen, 
from Wilkes, Surry, Stokes, Forsyth and Guilford, were 
the very last soldiers to leave this field of battle, and 
that the last man who poured out his blood as a libation 
to the liberty of his country, was Richard Talliaferro, a 
Volunteer Rifleman from Surry County, who fell and 
died under a sabre stroke from one of Banister Tarleton's 

If we can establish these facts upon a sound historical 
basis, and blazon them before the eyes of our people and 
the generations which shall succeed us, then indeed 
have we accomplished a work which should fill the heart 
of every North Carolinian with noble pride for his State 
and reverence for the memories of the heroes who have 
given immortality to their names. 

Therefore, this pleasant and agreeable task which has 
been cast upon me by my honored friend is not to deal 
in classical allusions, or lead you into the painted fields 
of rhetoric and literature but to present to your judg- 
ments a solid and reasonable argument, which will bear 
the test of research or the impartial rules of logic. 

I shall endeavor to state the facts as they appear in 
history, and to draw from them the conclusions of my 
own mind and submit them to your reason and con- 
science, confident that at the end you will love your 
State more than you did at the beginning. 

On the 5th day of May, 1888, near the line where the 
North Carolina Militia stood, and West of us, I dared to 
dispute the vile slanders which Lieutenant-Colonel Lee 
had heaped upon those men in his Memoirs, and to 
prove by written and cotemporary history, as well as by 
undisputed tradition, that these raw and undisciplined 
troops, though facing the best soldiers in the world, with 


bristling bayonets, against which they had no weapon of 
defence, did obey the orders which General Greene gave 
to them in person, and did fire twice upon their foes with 
their muskets, shot guns and rifles, the onl}- weapons 
they had, before retreating from the front. 

"Whose lit tongue of bolted flame 
Blazed full upon their foemen." 

I have followed those brave men to their subsequent 
organization as Regulars under Major Eaton, and their 
march to Augusta, Ga., where they used their newly 
acquired bayonets and stormed the English fort on June 
5th, 1781, and I have, with increasing delight, traced 
them to the carnage at Eutaw Springs, September 8th, 
1 78 1, where they withstood the charge of the British 
Regulars and turning upon their foes drove them in 
flight and confusion from the field of battle, and a nobler 
record was never made in history than those identical 
militiamen made at Augusta and Eutaw Springs. 

We now stand here upon this consecrated spot, 
enriched by the blood of North Carolinians, to glory in 
the achievements of our Volunteer Riflemen, who came 
to the rescue of Greene as fast as their hard)' mountain 
horses could bring them — who came without draft or 
conscription, without wages or rations — but willing, if 
necessary, to lay down their lives for the independence 
of their country. 

General Greene's Army was composed of three classes 
of troops. 

The Continental soldiers of the line, the Militia of the 
State called out by the Governor for six weeks service, 
and, lastly, the Volunteer soldiery who came from 
Virginia and North Carolifia to did in the great struggle 
which was about to take place on this ground around 
Guilford Court House. 


Being Volunteers, they were not enrolled on the lists 
of the American Army, and do not appear on the official 
reports. They attached themselves, under the direction 
of General Greene, to such one of the different corps or 
divisions as suited their fancy, or where duty seemed to 
invite them. In order to discover the number, names 
and commands, of these irregular troops, it is necessary 
to search very closely and accurately the records of the 
several authors who wrote about this memorable cam- 
paign, in order to catch the glimpses of these men as they 
pass before our eyes. General Greene had counted very 
largely upon the thousand Volunteer Riflemen, which 
Colonel William Campbell had promised to bring to his 
assistance from Washington County, Virginia. 

But Johnson, in his life of Greene, Volume I., page 
469, says: 

"The gallant Colonel Campbell, who had promised a 
reinforcement of one thousand hardy mountaineers, 
flushed with the capture of an entire army on King's 
Mountain, had, almost desperate with mortification, pre- 
sented himself with only sixty followers." 

This is a most important statement, because the whole 
corps which covered the left flank of the American 
Army is spoken of in history as "Campbell's Corps," and 
in it he had only sixty men. 

It is very probable that even those troops spoken of 
as "sixty men" were in reality North Carolinians. 

Ramsey in his Annals of Tennessee, page 251, says: 

"Under this condition of things (in February, 1781,) the Governor 
of North Carolina conjured Shelby to return to the relief of his dis- 
tressed country. General Greene also addressed to the Western 
leaders, who had signalized their zeal at King's Mountain, the most 
earnest and flattering letters reminding them of the glory already 
acquired and calling upon them to come forward once more to 
repel the invaders. 


"Colanel Sevier was at this time, with most of the Militia oi' 
Watauga and Nollichucky engaged in protecting their own frontier 
and chastising the Cherokees, as will be elsewhere narrated. 
Neither of the Western Commanders could therefore go to the 
assistance of General Greene. A few of the pioneers of Tennessee 
(then North Carolina) however were under his command as Vol- 
unteers at the hardly contested battle of the 15th of March, 1781, 
of Guilford Court House, and are said to have behaved well." 

In the "Rear Guard of the Revolution," pages 287-288, 
We find that 

"General Greene also wrote Sevier reminding him of his glorious 
services at King's Mountain and earnestly urging him to come to 
his aid with as many of his Mountaineers as he could muster. 
These appeals fell on willing ears but Sevier's hands were tied, his 
men had now again to defend their own firesides. However he 
dispatched a svtalt force under Charles Robertson to Greene, 
and they soon after%vard gave a good account of themselves at 
Guilford Court House." 

It is not at all surprising that Colonel Campbell should 
recruit troops in North Carolina; for the County of Sulli- 
van, North Carolina, adjoined Washington County, Vir 
ginia, and Washington County, North Carolina was just 
South of Sullivan. State lines were little regarded in 
those dates when the frontiersmen made common cause 
against a common invader. The history of the gathering 
of the troops for King's Mountain is an illustration of this 

In "Draper's King's Mountain and Its Heroes," 
page 39 1, we read : 

"Notwithstanding the Cherokees were troublesome and threat- 
ening the frontiers Colonel Campbell raised over a hundred of his 
gallant riflemen and moved forward on February the 25th, others 
joining him on the way, until he brought General Greene, about 
the 2nd of March, four hundred Mountaineers. 

Who the "others" were is the subject of our inquiry, for 
by the common consensus of all the historians of that 

Samuei- Wittkowsky, Esq. 

Director O. B G. Compans'. 





<3ay, it was this corps wiiich was fighting the Hessians 
after General Greene had retreated from the field. 

These "others," "mountaineers," "on the way," could 
have been none other than Winston's and Armstrong's 
Volunteers, or Minute Men, who were immediately on 
Campbell's way to Greene. By tradition well preserved 
Campbell was to cross at Flowery Gap in Surry County 
and be joined by the Surry men, but it so happened that 
Armstrong and Winston reached General Pickens' Com- 
mand, of Greene's Army, which was after Tarleton, 
before Campbell arrived. 

"Others" "on the way" could not have referred to 
Colonel Preston's Command which was from Augusta 
County, Virginia, over one hundred miles Northeast of 
Washington County where Campbell lived and he 
traveled Southeast to join Greene. 

I append to this address a letter from Martin Arm- 
strong to Campbell showing that they were acting in 
concert and that Armstrong was preparing the "way"- 
through Surry for Campbell and was expecting him and 
urging him to hasten forward. 

To return to the battle: The North Carolina Militia 
had been broken; then the Virginia Militia, under Gen- 
erals Stevens and Lawson, had been driven to the Court 
House, Northeast of where we stand, and the Continen- 
tal line, after varying fortunes, in which the Marylanders 
under Gunby and Howard, and the Delawares under 
Kirkwood, had covered themselves with immortal glor)', 
were at length compelled to retreat in the direction of 
McQuistian's Bridge, three miles from the scene of strife. 

After all this, and when the Militia and Regulars and 
Cavalry had all gone, a gallant and undaunted little band 
of hardy riflemen were still waging the unequal contest 
on the American left, where we now stand. 


Tarleton, in his account, says: 

"Earl Cornwallis did not think it advisable for the 
cavalry to charge the enemy, who were retreating," 
(meaning the Continentals) "but directed him to proceed 
with a squadron of dragoons to the right, where, by the 
constant fire zvJiich ivas yet maintaitied, the affair seemed 
not to be ended. 

"As soon as the cavalry arrived, the guards and the 
Hessians were directed to fire a volley upon the largest 
part of the Militia, and, under cover of the smoke, 
Lieutenant-Colonel Tarleton doubled around the right 
flank of the guards and charged the Americans with 
considerable effect. The enemy gave way on all sides 
and were routed with confusion and loss. 

"Thus ended a well contested action which had lasted 
two hours." 

The battle ended with this charge of cavalry. The 
Riflemen, having been deserted by Lee, as Johnson 
says, had no protection, and were compelled to yield the 

In his official report. Earl Cornwallis says: "The 
Twenty-Third and Seventy-First Regiments, with part 
of the cavalry, were ordered to pursue the Continentals, 
the remainder of the cavalry was detached with Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel Tarleton to our right, where a heavy fire 
still continued." 

Stedman says: "The action being ended in the centre 
and on the left of the British line, a firing was still heard 
on the right." 

The firing heard on the right after the termination of 
the action on the centre and left induced Cornwallis to 
send Tarleton with part of his Cavalry to that point. 

Lee, in his Memoirs, says: "Lieutenant-Colonel 
Tarleton found only a few resolute marksmen in the 
rear of Campbell, who continued firing from tree to tree." 


He should have added that these men remained to con- 
tinue the fight after he had retreated without orders to 
the Court House, and left them devoid of protection from 
the cavalry. 

It is therefore an undisputed fact that the battle ended 
on the British right, the British advancing from West to 
East, thus locating the last conflict to the South of the 
New Garden road, on both sides of which they were 

Now as to the vicinity where this last charge of Colonel 
Tarleton took place, I have this reliable testimony: 

Just North of where we stand, some three hundred 
yards distant, and on the West side of the Salisbury 
road, lived Jonathan Merideth at the time of the battle, 
March the 15th, 178 1. He had a son, Milton Merideth, 
who lived with his father and who died unmarried. He 
was the brother of Mrs. Phoebe Ross, who lives in less 
than a mile Southwest of this spot. 

Addison Coffin, an intelligent gentleman, a prominent 
member of the Society of Friends, who was born and 
raised near the present Guilford College, formerly known 
as New Garden Meeting House, now seventy-two years 
of age and a citizen of Hadley, Hendrix county, Indiana, 
noted for his remarkably retentive and accurate memory, 
and who from his youth became deeply interested in this 
battle field and its incidents, came on a visit to his 
friends in this county in August, 1890, and was introduced 
to me as one from whom much valuable information 
could be derived. I was not long in discovering the 
worth of his acquaintance, and on the 22d day of August 
I took him with me in my buggy to this battle field 
where we spent the day in visiting various spots of 
historic interest. 

Coming to the place where the old Jonathan Merideth 
homestead stood, he said that about the year 1840, when 


he was just grown into manhood, he came to the battle- 
field with a Mr. Lamb, who also took great interest im 
the history of the battle; that they came to Jonathan 
Merideth's house and conversed with him and his son„ 
Milton Merideth, who pointed out to them various 
localities of interest, and among the most important 
of these was the spot where we have erected the 

Milton Merideth took the trouble to accompany them 
across the field Just Northwest of us then, however, in 
forest, and coming to this spot, he said: 

"Here the Battle Ended; the Last Shots 
WERE Fired Here." 

Mr. Coffin was so wonderfully accurate in his memory 
that he gave me an exact description of the place 
before we came to the battle field, though he had not 
been there for about fifty years. I was greatly astonished 
at his memory, indeed the most wonderful I have ever 

It is not necessary for me to speak of Mr. Coffin's high 
character for piety, integrity and truth. That is "known 
and read of all men" who have been acquainted with 
him. I vouch for his character myself 

This information, so directly and accurately obtained 
from Addison Coffin, through Jonathan and Milton 
Merideth, is corroborated b}' the citations from the 
various historians named above, so that we may take it, 
now beyond controversy, that this spot or vicinity is 
where the Riflemen, under Campbell, were fighting the 
Hessians and Tarleton's cavalry, after General Greene 
and the Continental soldiers and the Militia had left the 

The last and most important fact for me to demonstrate 
to your satisfaction is that the North Carolina Volunteers, 


ancluding Winston, Franklin and Talliaferro, were among 
the very last to leave the field. 

The only biographical sketch of Major Joseph Winston, 
Avhich is entitled to historical respect, is the one con- 
tained in that invaluable work, "King's Mountain and 
Its Heroes," written by Lyman C. Draper, LL. D., of 
Wisconsin, a gentleman to whom North Carolina is 
largely indebted for the justice which he has done to her 
history and the wonderful amount of information which 
he has collected in regard to her Revolutionary period. 

Draper says on page 455 that "in February, 1781, 
Winston led a party against a band of tories, had a 
running fight with them, killing some, capturing others 
and dispersing the remainder. He shortly after joined 
General Greene with a hundred Riflemen and shared in 
the battle of Guilford." 

The mere statement of a fact connected with the life 
of a "King's Mountain Hero," by Draper, would of itself 
be conclusive to the minds of those who have studied his 
history. His carefulness, his research and his impar- 
tiality, as well as his integrity, are undisputed. 

In the introduction to his great work, Professor Draper 
gives the names of a large number of citizens of North 
Carolina to whom he was specially indebted for valuable 
information. Among those from Surry are John Banner 
and Wylie Franklin. 

I have interviewed my distinguished friend. Judge 
Jesse Franklin Graves, as to the character of these men, 
and their means of ascertaining the truth in regard to 
Major Winston. He says that "John Banner was a 
native of Stokes County, was a prominent man and at 
one time Clerk of the Court and a man of iritelligence. 
He was not a cotemporar}' of Winston, but came in the 
next generation, and had ample opportunity to know the 
traditions in regard to him. He lived in the vicinity of 


Major Winston's home near old Germantown and died 
about three years ago." 

It was no doubt from Mr. Banner that Professor Draper 
derived the most of his information in regard to Winston, 
and that Banner was induced by Draper to make research 
and ascertain the history of Winston from his neighbors 
and friends. Draper began, he says, to gather material 
for his work in 1839, though it was not published until 
1881, and he had ample opportunity to collect facts from 
those who knew Winston personally, for Winston did not 
die until April the 2 1st, 181 5. 

Wylie Franklin was a son of Shadrach Franklin, the 
latter a brother of Jesse Franklin, who beyond all ques- 
tion was the last man to leave this field. Judge Graves 
informs me that though Wylie Franklin was the cor- 
respondent, he only wrote what was dictated to him by 
Shadrach Franklin, a cotemporary of Winston, and who 
was well acquainted with the events and characters of 
that day. It is, therefore, manifest that Professor Draper 
had the most authentic sources of information at his 
command and that he used them freely. As the result 
of his correspondence with Banner, Franklin and others, 
he states positively and unequivocally that Major 
Winston shared with Greene in the battle of Guilford. 

This statement is strongly corroborated by Johnston 
in his Life of General Greene, who relates that Major 
Winston with one hundred Riflemen and Major Arm- 
strong (Martin Armstrong, no doubt), joined the 
commands of General Pickens and Lee on the evening 
of the 25th of February, 178 1, just after Lee had cut the 
command of Colonel Pyles to pieces. 

General Joseph Graham, in one of his Revolutionary 
Sketches, published in the University Magazine of May, 
1856, relates the active services of Captain Jesse Franklin, 
of Winston's Command, who was doing "patrol" or 


scouting duty, and gives tlie sad account of the death of 
Major Micajah Lewis, who, being temporaril}- without 
a command, was yet so anxious to aid in repelling the 
common enemy that he volunteered as a private. 

Johnston, Volume I, page 475, speaking of the state 
of affairs March 13th, 178 1, says that "the term of the 
service of the Militia was rapidly passing awa}' and the 
Volunteers had only engaged for six weeks." 

The military service of that day was counted from the 
time the soldier joined the army, and as Winston joined 
on the 25th of February the service of his command 
would not end until about the lOth of April, and would 
embrace the time of the battle here, the f^th day of 
March, 178 1. 

The term of service of the North Carolinians, which 
composed nine-tenths of General Pickens' Brigade, 
expired the 1st of March, but they remained until 
the 7th and participated in the affair at Whitsell's Mill. 

Colonel William Campbell did not reach Greene's 
Army until the 3rd of March. 

Colonel Preston had joined Pickens on the 25th day of 
Februar}' with three hundred Virginians, and these were 
placed under Colonel Campbell. While it is not stated 
positively that Winston was in Campbell's Command, 
every allusion to them proves the fact. As early as 
Januar\- the 30th, 178 1, Greene had written a most 
urgent letter to Colonel Campbell, from Sherrill's Ford, 
beseeching him to come with his King's Mountain 
victors, to his aid, and Campbell had promised to do so, 
but the Indians, being incited to an invasion of the 
frontier settlements by British emissaries, the men of 
Washington County, Virginia, Campbell's home, were 
compelled to turn their attention to them, and for this 
reason Campbell could only obtain sixty men, but the 
mountains sheltered Surry County, North Carolina, and 


Campbell naturally turned his eyes for aid to Major 
Winston, his comrade in arms, who had ascended the 
heights of King's Mountain side by side with him in the 
October previous. 

Judge Graves confirms this by a well authenticated 
tradition in his family that the Surry Volunteers, by agree- 
ment, were to join Campbell at the Flowery Gap of the 
Blue Ridge, but as Campbell was tardy the Surry men 
under Winston and Armstrong proceeded to the front. 

As Colonel Campbell was the ranking officer, it was rea- 
sonable and proper that Winston should serve under him. 

I have demonstrated that both Winston and Arm- 
strong were in the battle; that their troops were veteran 
riflemen and behaved with gallantry. No author records 
or suggests that they were in line with the North Caro- 
lina Militia. They would not be placed in the Virginia 
line, nor the Continental line of Regulars, where else 
then could they have been but with Campbell.' That 
was their natural position, it was where they would 
choose to be and where every instinct of military genius 
would assign them. They were with their brother 
riflemen, under their former Commander at King's 
Mountain and were eager to share again with him in the 
glories of victory. 

General Greene in a letter to Colonel William Preston, 
dated February 24th, 178 1, from Hico river, says: 

"It is my wish that you should march to this place as 
soon as possible and join General Pickens, who has a 
party of Militia collected from the Salisbury district. It 
is necessary that we should collect our force to a point, 
and it is equally necessary that the force should be 
formed under the command of good and experienced 
officers. There is no one more deserving than General 
Pickens, who, I dare say, would be perfectly agreeable 
to you and your command." 


The policy of Greene is announced of "forming the 
troops" then collecting to his command, and who were 
without a general officer, "under good and experienced 
officers," naming Pickens as suitable for that position, 
Pickens was, however, soon to leave, as the time of his 
own troops expired the ist of March, and how natural it 
was then to transfer tliese troops thus formed to Camp- 
bell who was "a good and experienced officer," and 
came with a great reputation on account of his recent 
victory at King's Mountain. He was immediately 
assigned to the important post as rear guard and as 
such repulsed the attack of Webster at Whitsell's Mill, 
on the 7th of March. 

Campbell's Riflemen and Winston's and Armstrong's 
and Preston's were a class of soldiers wholly distinct and 
different from the general Militia. I am much inclined 
to think Winston's and Armstrong's were the "MiNUTE 
Men," organized under the Act of the Colonial Congress, 
April 4th, 1776. They kept themselves ready for service 
at any minute, and to do this required discipline and 
drill and equipments, besides a determined will and 
a lofty courage. 

Greene wanted all the King's Mountain men he could 
gather, because the}' were veterans by long experience 
in the frontier battles with Indians, and were brought up 
from their youth to the use of the rifle and the privations 
of camp life. 

Winston and Campbell had shared in the splendid 
victory at King's Mountain, and with their laurels, not 
a year old, were anxious and impatient to exhibit their 
prowess in war again to the discomfiture of the British 
Commander. Lee says, page 265, that "Campbell's 
Militia were part of the conquerors of King's Mountain." 
Preston was not at King's Mountain but Winston was. 

Every inference and every reasonable conclusion 


drawn from the meagre account of the detachment of 
Greene's Army, which was harassing Cornwallis in North 
Carolina, from the 25th day of February to the 13th of 
March, when they joined Greene at High Rock Ford, 
points to Winston's and Armstrong's troops as a part of 
Campbell's Corps. 

The Volunteer forces, not being under the control of 
Congress and not being called out by the State, do not 
appear on the muster rolls, as the Continental Line and 
the Militia did, and hence their movements cannot be 
traced through official reports. It was convenient to 
Greene to ignore them in numbering his troops, so that it 
might not appear that he so greatly outnumbered Corn- 
wallis as he did. 

But we hasten on to the battle, where by all accounts 
the North Carolina Militia were placed in the front line, 
with Colonel Washington covering their right flank and 
Campbell's Corps of Riflemen covering their left flank. 
No mention is made of Winston or Armstrong as being 
with the Militia or Regulars, but they remained where 
they had been since the third of March, under Campbell, 
as veteran riflemen to protect the flank. 

Campbell, as we know, was attacked by the First 
Battalion of British Guards under Major Norton, in order 
to relieve Leslie's Brigade, composed of the Seventy- 
First Regiment of Highlanders and the Hessian Regi- 
ment, from the galling fire of Campbell's rifles, but 
Campbell, protected by the forest, poured such a deadly 
fire into the Guards that they were routed and driven 
back in confusion to the open ground. Here Cornwallis 
rode among them in person and rallied the battalion into 
line, while the Hessians, having driven the Militia from 
their front, turned on Campbell's right. 

The unequal combat was renewed, and Campbell in 
turn was driven South, to the high ridge or little 


Mountain South of us, not, however, without great loss 
to the British. Cornwallis, following up his advantage 
with too much zeal, had his splendid iron-grey horse 
shot under him near the house of Mrs. Phoebe Ross. As 
the battle now began to rage fiercely with the Continental 
Line on Greene's right, and Webster's Brigade had been 
routed by the magnificent charge of the First Maryland 
Regiment, and the Second Battalion of British Guards 
had been almost annihilated by these same troops, Corn- 
wallis was compelled to withdraw the First Battalion 
under Norton from Campbell's front. 

As only the Hessians were now left, Campbell soon 
began to press them sorely and drive them Northward 
along the Salisbury road, just by our side here, until he 
reached this spot. He was slowly but surely fighting his 
way to Greene's left and would very soon have joined 
him if Greene had not retreated. Lee says that Greene 
was laboring under the mistake that the British were 
getting in the rear of his left flank and were still 
victorious in that quarter, and fearing that he might be 
cut off he retreated. Johnston reflects most severely 
and justly upon Lee for not giving correct information to 
Greene instead of remaining an idle spectator of the 
battle from the Court House. 

But the end did come, and Campbell's men, who had 
been in the fiercest of the fight, were at last overpowered 
by the combined force of Hessians and Tarleton's 
Cavalry, as related in the opening of my address. 

Now who were there in that supreme moment, when 
hope at last took her flight from the hearts of those brave 
men, and gloom and sadness settled upon the field.^ 
Their lines had been broken, the scattered Riflemen 
were seeking shelter from the sabre, and were hurrying 
forward to join the retreating army, but there were two 
heroic men who still lingered behind, firing shot after 


shot from their deadly rifles and keeping the foe at bay. 
They lingered after their comrades had gone and the 
enemy's dragoons were pressing them from every side; 
at last, yielding to the stern necessity of fate, they 
attempted to reach their horses, which were hitched in 
the rear. The one was successful, with not a moment to 
spare. He cut his bridle rein loose, mounted his horse, 
and escaped unharmed. That man was Captain Jesse 
Franklin, of Winston's Command, afterwards the honored 
Governor of this State and representing her in the United 
States Senate. The other was Richard Talliaferro, his 
brother-in-law, who attempted to untie his bridle rein 
and by this delay was overtaken and cut down by 
Tarleton's Dragoons. He sealed his service with his 
blood, and gave his young life that you and I might be 

I derive this information in regard to these two 
chivalrous young volunteer soldiers from a chapter 
contributed by Judge Graves to the Second Series of 
Caruthers' Sketches of North Carolina. The account 
can be implicitly relied upon as coming from an incor- 
ruptible and impartial source. 

The presence and conduct of these two Surry County 
Riflemen, which has been so fortunately handed down to 
us through such a trustworthy channel, fixes, with 
unerring certainty, the command in which they and their 
comrades had been fighting during the day. They 
could not have come to Campbell accidentally at that 
particular time, because all the balance of the American 
Army, which had been separated from Campbell since 
the first onset in the morning, had been compelled to 
retreat from the field, and only Campbell and his men 
had been left to face the foe. There were, no doubt, 
many of the comrades of Winston and Franklin and 
Talliaferro as brave and loyal as they, and as stubborn 


in the fight, who never flinched from duty and who 
scorned to turn their backs on the enemy until they were 
surrounded by cavahy and infantry, and outnumbered 
and overwhehned by the remaining army of CornwalHs. 
but the names of these deserving heroes have been lost 
in the mists and shadows of the century which has 
succeeded them. The names of those who have survi\'ed 
to us we have gathered with sacred care, and with 
consecrated hands have placed them upon the granite 
and the bronze, that they may be imperishably preserved 
in the histor}^ of our State with the motto: "Palmam 
<^UI MERUIT FERAT" — let those bear the palm who 
deserve it. 

Let it be understood that the blank which is left upon 
the bronze tablet will be devoted to the name of any 
other hero, whose descendants or friends may prove his 
title to the great honor of having it added to those 
already there. 

I would be untrue to my knowledge of history and the 
instincts of a patriotic heart, if I did not solemnly aver 
in this presence to-day that I believe Major Martin 
Armstrong, and his command of one hundred Riflemen, 
were as certainly fighting upon this spot as were Winston 
and his comrades. The argument that proves the one 
proves the other. We onl)' lack the demonstration of the 
names of the members of his command to entitle him to 
the same honor as that accorded to Winston and his 
command here to-day. 

Among the archives of the Pension Office at Washing- 
ton I have found an old dusty and decaying file 
containing the petition of the widow of Salathiel Martin 
for a pension under the Act of Congress, 1832, which 
compelled the petitioner to state the services of the 
soldier upon which the petition for a pension was 
founded. In these papers was the affidavit of a neighbor 


and friend of Salathiel Martin, in which it is stated that 
Salathiel Martin was a Captain in the Command of 
Martin Armstrong and fought gallantly at the battle of 
Guilford Court House. This is the only positive record 
we have in regard to Martin Armstrong's Command, but, 
meagre as it is, it places him and his men upon the roll 
of honor and fixes their participation in the sanguinary^ 
scenes of this battle field. 

As a citizen of Guilford County, I may be pardoned 
for adding yet another band of heroes who had joined 
Campbell on that morning and shared with him in the 
fortunes of that day, some of whom survived to be 
honored in the Republic which they founded and 
perpetuated. Caruthers, in his life of David Caldwell, 
pages 233 and 234, states "that many Guilford Volunteers 
were in the battle at the Court House, and that the 
bravery of two very young men on that day was highly 
spoken of. These were John Rankin and John Allison. 
A number were assembled in the morning at the house 
of Allison's father, mostly females and old men. Allison's 
house was two miles to the left of Greene's Army, and 
when the big guns began to fire these j^oung men sprang 
to their rifles. The females, divining their intention, 
laid hold of them, and crying and shrieking, bade them 
not to go, but they freed themselves from the holds of 
their friends and left to join their companions. TJicy fell 
in with CanipbclVs jMoiDitainccrs and fought with tJicm 
until they retreated, after which they were fired at by a 
Company of British Regulars, but escaped unhurt." 

Caruthers also relates: "On his first visit to the battle 
ground he was accompanied by Robert Rankin, whose 
bravery on the battle field was well attested, and who, 
although just recovering from the small-pox, went from 
his home that morning and fell in with Campbell's 
Mountaineers. After taking him a tree, which he had 

(ylu^ F^ 






used eis a bulwark and from behind which he had fired 
two or three times even after most of the division had 
retreated, he observed that just before the retreat com- 
menced, Thomas Cummins passed by him at a dog trot 
and sat down on a log- just beyond and taking out a 
luncheon of bread began to crunch it, when a ball came 
whizzing by his head and so close as to brush his hair. 
He instantly started to his feet and coolly observed that 
he might as well die fighting as eating, and set off at the 
same gait to occupy his post again." 

We have here, therefore, the names of four Volunteers 
from Guilford County: Jonn Rankin, John Allison, 
Robert Rankin and Thomas Cummins, whose names 
deserve to be placed on the roll of honor as men who 
began the fight with zeal and courage, who maintained it 
with stubborn tenacity and who never left the field until 
forced to do so by overw-helming numbers. Wherever 
the names of Winston and Franklin and Talliaferro and 
Martin Armstrong shall be mentioned with honor, there 
should be added the names of these four young heroes 
from Guilford County. 

I will not weary you, my friends, with further argu- 
ment — neither my health or strength is sufficient for 
this occasion; but in my address, when published, I shall 
add documents and references which will enable }'ou to 
study the question intelligently, if you desire. 

In 1891, in my annual report to the Company, I stated 
the facts which I have elaborated to-day in a concise 
form, and recommended that a simple granite boulder 
from Surry, the home of these heroic men, should be 
placed here to mark and preserve this sacred spot until 
some better memorial should succeed it. The Compan}' 
had no funds, but it had the heart and the will to do them 
this justice. At the last Legislature, I made an earnest 
and vigorous effort to induce the men who composed 


that body to increase its appropriation to the Guilford 
Battle Ground Company, that I nnight consummate the 
work which has been completed here to-day in the 
presence of this vast "cloud of witnesses." I asked for 
five hundred dollars annually. The Bill was favorably 
reported by the Hon. Jacob Battle and advocated by 
Senators W. H. Day, John L. King, B. F. Posey and 
others and passed the Senate by a large majority. 

In the House of Representatives the debate for the 
Bill was led by the Hon. Cyrus B. Watson, of Forsyth, 
Hon. Jacob Long, of Alamance, General R. B. Vance, of 
Buncombe, and Hon. M. H. Holt, of Guilford. The Bill was 
secretly but stoutly resisted and only passed by one vote. 
When the vote was a tie a colored member from Vance 
County named Watson came in and Mr. Watson of 
Forsyth humorously called on "his namesake" to vote.. 
He voted "aye". Amidst tremendous applause the Bill 
was passed. Subsequently however a Supplemental Bill 
was pas.sed suspending its effect for one year. Thus were 
our hopes again turned to ashes for the present. 

In our earnest efforts to obtain this much needed 
appropriation Governor T. M. Holt, Associate Justice 
Walter Clark and Professor Kemp P. Battle all addressed 
the Legislature, most eloquently in our behalf. 

While brooding one day over our misfortune, it 
occurred to me that the statesman, patriot and philan- 
thropist, who stood so nobly by us, had not only been 
endowed with wisdom and ardent love for his State, but 
had been blessed with wealth and means, not cast upon 
him by a freak of fortune, but accumulated by honest 
industry and conspicuous integrity in business. 

I went to Graham and met Governor Holt and laid 
before him the proposition to erect this Monument him- 
self. He promised to give it a favorable consideration, 
and uttered in this connection a sentiment which 


impressed itself deeply on my heart as manifesting the 
love he bore his native State. 

He said he had been urged to contribute liberally to a 
Monument which was to be erected at Richmond, Va., 
but that he preferred to donate his money to raise 
Monuments on his native soil. He stated further that if 
we had pursued this policy heretofore the graves of our 
own heroes would not have been unmarked and neg- 

In a few weeks Governor Holt wrote me that he would 
furnish the necessary means to mark the consecrated 
spot on which, in a few minutes, you will see unveiled a 
Monument that will not only be a pride in this genera- 
tion, but one that will challenge the admiration of the 
generations which shall succeed it. 

No grander, nobler gift was ever made by any North 
Carolinian, and the name of Governor Holt, now 
inscribed in imperishable granite and bronze, shall be 
blended with those heroic men who, by their valor, have 
made their names immortal in history. 

His far-seeing sagacity, his pure and unselfish magna- 
nimity and his beneficent spirit, has set before the people 
of North Carolina an example of goodness and greatness 
which will, in due time, bring forth its fruits in the hearts 
and minds of our people. No youth or maiden who shall 
pass this way will ever fail to bless the noble man who 
rescued from forgetfulness the names of the North 
Carolina soldiers who were among the very last to leave 
this field of blood. 

And I confidently hope, and sincerely believe, that 
other North Carolinians, provoked to emulation by the 
example of Governor Holt, will add other Monuments 
in memory of those who are worthy of the honor 

Now, ladies and gentlemen, I feel that, through my 
distinguished friend, Governor Holt, I have accomplished 


the great purpose of my heart, in the erection of a 
Monument on these grounds to commemorate the virtue 
and patriotism of North Carolina soldiers. It is a North 
Carolina Monument of North Corolina granite, presented 
by a North Carolinian in honor of North Carolina heroes 
and soon to be unveiled by four of the fair daughters of this 
State. It is a North Carolina day for North Carolinians. 
God has blessed us with the beautiful sunshine, the earth 
is bedecked with flowers and the kindly fruit is hanging 
in wonderful abundance upon the trees. Gospel measure 
"full and running over," has been meted out to us this 
year, and I hope it is not irreverent, in the presence of 
these men of God, to say that there involuntarily sp nngs 
up in my heart a sentiment much akin to that which 
actuated Simeon of old, when he exclaimed: "Lord 
now lettest Thou Thy servant depart in peace." 

Colonel Martin Armstronc; to Colonel Wil- 
liam Campbell.* 

February 2 5th,f 1781. 
Dear Colonel : 

Yesterday I had an express from Colonel Locke's 
camp; he is at the High Rock Ford on Haw 
River; General Pickens is near Hillsboro, and by this 
time considerable strong; General Greene on his march 
towards the enemy, with a number of Virginia Militia 
and Regulars; General Butler with the Orange district 
Militia is below Hillsboro, and by every intelligence the 
enemy are penned up in that town. 

It is o-enerally supposed that a reinforcement is on the 

*Gibbes Doc. History. 

rNoTE.— 1 think that the date to this letter was erroneously transcribed by Gibbcs. It 

may have been written the 23rd or earlier. 


marcli "to tlie assistance of the British; our people are 
5,rathering from all quarters, and the enemy's pickets are 
constantly harassed by our reconnoitring parties. 

The arrival of your troops would add vigor to us and 
discourage the enemy who, no doubt, have heard of 
3'our being on your march towards them. 

Pray send back this express as quick as possible. 

I shall endeavor to have some meat for you at 
Bethabara; meal and corn you can have a plenty, but 
meat is scarce. However I shall try my best. 

This day Colonel Preston, I think, will join General 

Pickens; if any extraordinary news comes to hand before 

you r rive at Bethabara, I shall let you know by another 


I am, in haste, Sir, 

Your humble servant, 

Martin Armstrong. 

Extract from a Sketch of Jesse F'ranklix bv 
J. F. Graves. 

I take from Caruthers' Sketches, Series No. 2, pages 
204-205, the subjoined extract from a Sketch of Jesse 
Franklin written by Jesse F. Graves, the present Judge 
Graves. It describes Franklin's escape from Tarleton's 
last charge and Talliaferro's death. 

"He spent that night at his father's house in the hay- 
loft, and the next day he set off with a young man 
named Talliaferro for General Greene's Army. 

"They arrived at the army and joined the Volunteers a 
very short time before the battle of Guilford Court 

"I have not been able to ascertain under whom he acted 
at the battle; but under whomsoever he served, he was 
among the last to leave tJie field. 


"He and Talliaferro had taken their horses with them 
to the army, but on the day of battle they served zvitlt 
the infantry, and tied their horses a little off from the 

"When the retreat commenced they were hotly pursued 
by a squadron of British horsemen. They got to where 
their horses were tied, and Talliaferro attempted to untie 
his but just as he was mounting he was struck down with 
a sword. Franklin cut his reins and vaulted into his 
saddle just as a horseman struck so near him that he felt 
the wind of the sword as it passed his cheeks. He 
escaped and Talliaferro's horse came along with him. 

"He afterwards went back and buried his friend, and 
brought his gun and cartridge-box to his family. I have 
been told that the gun and accoutrements are still pre- 

"These are about all the facts I can gather in relation 
to Jesse Franklin's services in the war, except some few 
unimportant acts in his partisan warfare against the 

This fixes three facts: 

(i) That Franklin and Talliaferro were among the last 
troops who left the field. 

(2) That they served with the infantry. 

(3) That they were with the troops charged by 

These facts demonstrate that they were with Campbell's 
Infantry, who were the last to leave the field and were 
dispersed by Tarleton's Cavalry. 

Edwin A. Alderman, Ph. B. 

Professor of the History and Philosophy of Education, University of North Carolina. 


Mr. Stockard being necessarily detained at home, this 
fine poem was read for him by Professor A. E. Alder- 


For the Dedication of the Holt Monument, Guilford Battle Around. 
July the Fourth, 1893. 

This is the ground where patriots bled ^. 
Wide scattered here are Guilford's dead I 
Peace! come with slow and reverent tread, 
And voices all subdued ; — 
Break not their long, deep, love-engendered solitude. 

Where silence reigns above this field 
Once wild the thundering squadrons wheeled; 
Earth jarred, and armies swerved and reeled; — 
The thrilling bugle-blow 
Once called in vain for heroes laid forever low I 

They who then, as Gibraltar's rock. 
Withstood the direst battle-shock. 
And dared in death's bare face to mock, 
Were not inured to arms — 
Till then, had never known war's awful leaden storms. 

But they were men born to be free, 
Even though through death's dark gates should be 
The path that led to liberty : 
Rather that sunless way 
Than slavery's galling, strong-forged chain with life for aye! 

Yon granite piled where that stern band, — 
When veteran's fled, — took their last stand 
'Mid thunder-dint, while levin-brand 
Fell full upon their breast, — 
Enshrines the dust by all the brave revered and blessed ! 


Meseems I hear that volley's roar, 
And see — but now I see no more ! — 
Lo! through the clouds of smoke they i)our, — 
Dragoons and Hessian slaves ! — 
And Winston's level flame rolls back their circling glaives! 

But that fierce onset is not stayed I 
They front those legions undism^ayed; 
They meet, they mix, blade rings on blade 
Till but the dead and he 
Remain; brave Talliaferro could die but never flee ". 

'Twas then that hand so red with guilt. 
Holding with savage hate its hilt, 
Struck last and its own crimson spilth* 
Figuring the iron grasp 
Thenceforth relaxing till the tyrant's latest gasp ! 

Dead is that soul that does not flame 
At sight of Guilford's deathless name 
And her three children's — heirs of fame! — 
By Alamance's child 
Graven on that fair memorial to their deed up-piled ' 

What though for then'k no more shall break 
The long reveille, and they wake 
To trumpet's call nor cannon's quake 
While with soft pace and slow 
Across the world the solemn centuries, stealing go ? 

They live who die the world to bless, 
Though never their sod a footstep press 
As they sink in forgetfulness 

Out on the world's dark verge, 
Oblivion's ocean-moan their only funeral dirge. 

They die who live for self, although 
Till time is o'er life's paths they know, 
And never above their bosoms flow 
Lethe's unlearning stream 
Long as the Wain circles the North's unfailing beam ! 

*This alludes to the fact that Tarleton received a bullet wound on the liand iu this 





'^'^- byF:G.Karncm.!> 


qT&^ M. }^''(rtk 


And ihey still livel When that proud stone 
Is by the battering years o'erthrown, 
And, mingled with tlicir dust, is blown 
Round earth's unpeopled shore, 
They then shall live, and on and on forevermore I 

Henry Jerome Stockard. 
July 4th, 1893. 

Mr. Morehead then introduced Governor Holt as 

Ladies and Gb:xtlemen: 

It is a melancholy fact, known to us all, that within 
this State there is not one North Carolinian whose form 
has been moulded in bronze or chiseled in marble. It is 
my great pleasure to introduce to you now the one 
patriotic son of North Carolina who has himself erected 
to her noble Revolutionary Heroes a Monument worth}' 
of their deeds, Ex-Governor Thomas M. Holt. 


Ladies and Gentlemen: 

I thank you for this demonstration. I am here to-day 
as an humble citizen of North Carolina. I did not 
expect to speak on this occasion. I told the distin- 
guished President of this Battle Ground Compan}^ that 1 
did not want to make a speech. If I do speak I am 
frank to say that I do not know where I will commence 
or where I will end; but I hope you will excuse any 
egotism on my part when I say that the erection of that 
Monument is the proudest act of my life. (Deafening 
applause). I point you to two of the bronze tablets on 


that Monument; read the inscriptions thereon. They 
contain a better speech than I can make you to-day and 
will last much longer. (Great Applause). 

But, my fellow-citizens, why should we not celebrate 
this Fourth Day of July.^ I have said before and 1 say 
now, that if there are any people on American soil 
entitled to celebrate the Fourth it is the people of' 
Alamance and Guilford. (Applause). 

Your faces are not all familiar to me, my fellow- 
citi/xns, but I am not a stranger to you. I feel that I 
am among my neighbors and friends. Not more than 
twenty-five miles from here I was born and reared, and I 
do know something about what has occurred in the past. 
It was in my native county that this conflict first began 
and where we stand to-day it virtually ended. Although 
this was the last of it, yet Cornwallis did not lay down 
his arms until a few months afterwards, but everybody 
knows he received his fatal blow on this consecrated 
spot. (Loud applause). 

As I said in a speech before the Legislature, to which 
my honored friend. Judge Schenck, has alluded, I was 
taught, when a schoolboy, to read in old Peter Parley's 

"At Lexington the conflict arose, 
And Yorktown saw it proudly close," 

not a word of which was true. It rose in Alamance by 
the resistance of a few brave men to British tyranny and 
it ended right here. (Loud cheering). 

Ur. Battle, of the University, told me — I believe it was 
last night — that I was a very bold man in my votes, and 
I am. Whatever I think is right I advocate and what- 
ever I think is wTong I go against, and you must first 
convince me that I am wrong before I yield my opinion; 
(applause) and there is one thing in history that I know 
is wrong, and it is very mortifying to me, my fellow- 



citizens. We Jiai-c viadc viorc Jiistory tliaii any State in 
the Ajiierieau U)iion and had less of it zvritteii. (Ap- 
plause). We sent more men to the late war and we did 
more hard fiq-hting- than any State in the Southern 
Confederacy. While I was in Portsmouth the other da)' 
walkinij along the streets of that cit}' I saw a 
Monument pointing upward to the sky with this inscrip- 
tion: "To Our Confederate Dead." Where is one in 
North Carolina.'' X 

This Monument, my fellow-citizens, is not a waste of 
money. What do the inscriptions on it teach us .•* 
They teach us what I never knew and exactly the 
reverse of what I was taught. I learned that our patriotic 
ancestors J-etreated in disorder and disgrace from this 
field, and I tell you the honor is due to Judge Schenck 
for correcting that error and establishing the truth of 
histor\-. (Applause). Therefore I sa}- that Monuments 
are not silent stones. Put appropriate inscriptions upon 
them and the\' will educate the people and "bring forth 
good fruit in their season." I have been Governor of 
North Carolina, but I tell you I prefer that the genera- 
tions which succeed us should read that yonder Monument 
was "P>ected by Governor Thomas M. Holt" than to 
have the Governorship of the State for the remainder of 
my life. (Great applause). What do we live for.' 
What do patriots live for e.xcept to leave a legacy of 
honor and freedom to their children.' A man is insensible 
to feeling who doesn't appreciate it. 

I promised you m\' friends, that I would not make a 
speech, but, as Senator Vance says, "When I get started 
sometimes I get a little rousicated." 

I do thank you from my heart for the ovation }'ou have ,^ 

given me to-day. , ^>(^ 


Mr. Morehead said: 

The Gov^ernor of North Carolina has done us the honor 
to be present at our celebration. He needs no further 
introduction than to say he is a true North Carolinian 
and is in hearty sympathy with our great work. 


Ladies and Gentlemen: 

It is indeed a pleasure for me to be present v\ith > ou 
to-day. Only a short while ago — on a visit to your city 
of Greensboro, when my friend, Mr. J. M. Morehead 
here, invited me to visit this sacred ground — we rose 
early in the morning with the birds and about sunrise 
approached this consecrated battle field. I must confess 
to you that while I had read of the Battle of Guilford 
Court House, perhaps about the first reading I ever did, 
I knew nothing about it. Mr. Morehead and Judge 
Schenck took me over these grounds and Judge Schenck 
was kind enough to present me with a copy of his work, 
since which time, my friends, I have been deeply inter- 
ested in this place, and I assure you that it gives me 
great pleasure to be with you here to-day on this inter- 
esting occasion, but I do not propose to make a speech; 
I did not come here for that purpose. I know that the 
programme is completely full, but I do want to pay a 
slight tribute to this Guilford Battle Ground Company. 

No one who looks back over the history of the great 
Revolutionary struggle, can but conclude that where 
patriotism is the dominant spirit of a race, war, pesti- 
lence, and tyrants do but inspire that people to great and 
heroic deeds. And that the memory of these is destined, 
in after years, to bear wholesome fruit is here manifested 
in the restoration of this battle field of Guilford Court 

Hox. Kr.iAS Cark. 

Governor of North Carolina. 




• 65 

House and the unveiling to-day of an appropriate work 
of art, the gift of a patriotic son, Ex-Governor Thomas 
M. Holt. 

The battle of Guilford Court House was second in 
importance to none fought during the bloody war of 
Independence, and had the results been less disastrous 
to British arms. Cornwallis might have never known his 
Yorktown. Yet despite this truth, and in face of the fact 
that the noble deeds of her sons have been ascribed to 
others, and that other States have claimed her heroes, 
North Carolina, until a few years ago, had made but a 
feeble effort to restore her good name and to immortalize 
the memory of those of her children whose deeds shed 
as much lustre as those of a Marathon or a Sebastopol. 

To vindicate the honor of her soldiers, by giving pub- 
licity to the facts as contained in the war records, in the 
correspondence of the participants, and by amending 
and correcting the generally accepted account of the 
various battles, was the motive that prompted Hon. 
David Schenck to write his History of North Carolina 
1780 to 178 1. Under such circumstances a reader can 
pardon a certain amount of passion and vehemence of 
language, but it must be a source of consolation to every 
son of the State, that the author does not in a single 
instance, allow his feelings to influence his judgment. 
On the contrary, with a clearness and forcibleness of 
expression, truly admirable, he tells the story of the suf- 
ferings and fortitude of the North Carolina patriots; and 
with clear and sound reasoning he establishes the fact, 
that not only on the field of Guilford Court House did 
the Militia obey orders, but that at Camden, Cowpens 
and King's Mountain, they were soldiers of whom the 
great Frederic might well have been proud. 

No man as he looks around to-day can fail to be 
impressed by the scene which is here unfolded. Trans- 

66 ' 

formation, metamorphosis is the order of the day. I am 
reminded that only a few years ago waste and wilderness 
here held sway, but a new spirit seems now infused, not 
only in the old battle ground, but in the people at large, 
a spirit of patriotism, a disposition to write our history 
for posterity, the revival of which, I think, we are 
indebted in a large measure, to the author of the work 
in question. 

I am reminded also of the almost incredible amount 
of labor of which a single man is capable, when the 
heart and indomitable energy co-operate, as in the case 
of the President of the Guilford Battle Ground Company. 
And finally that we owe him a debt of gratitude which 
will be exceedingly difficult to discharge, for of the lofty 
courage, the undaunted spirit, and unwavering patriotism 
of the Revolutionary sons of North Carolina, he has given 
us an account so reasonable, so readable, that probably 
the most fitting reference one could make to it is, "Happy 
are that people who have a noble history and read it." 

Mr. Morehead arising said: 

I present to this vast audience the young Chief Justice 
of North Carolina, whose wisdom and learning far 
outstrip his years. Chief Justice James E. Shepherd. 


I am very happy, my fellow-citizens, to be here to-day 
and to unite with you in the celebration of the anniversary 
of our Declaration of Independence. I did not come, 
however, for the purpose of making an address, but 
simply to attest, by my presence, my profound apprecia- 
tion of the liberality of our distinguished Ex-Governor 
Holt, and of the unselfish devotion of our noble friend, 
Judge Schenck. who for years has lent his best energies 

Hon. James E. Shepherd. 

Chief Justice of North Carolina. 



and all the powers of his intellect to the vindication of 
North Carolina history and North Carolina gallantry. 

If I were making a pilgrimage throughout this broad 
and beautiful land, searching for some sacred spot, some 
glorious shrine, upon which to make an offering to the 
Goddess of Patriotism, I would have need to go no 
further than the historic battle field of Guilford Court 
House. But, in the midst of these inspiring scenes, let 
us not be unmindful ot the duties that have been devolved 
upon us by our Revolutionary fathers. They, by their 
blood and treasure, purchased for us the inestimable 
blessings of liberty, and it is our sacred duty, a duty to 
them, a duty to ourselves and to our posterity, to 
preserve this liberty and to realize out of it that long 
hoped for ideal of mankind, a perfect and lasting 
Republican Government. 

The crowned heads of Europe are watching our grand 
experiment with jealousy and fear and the down-trodden 
and oppressed throughout the whole world are looking 
with anxious hope at the result. Already the alarm has 
been sounded and we are reminded of the dangers that 
everywhere beset us. The growth of population, the 
infusion of a large foreign element, the wonderful 
development of our resources, the tremendous activity 
of commercial and industrial agencies, their conflicting 
character, the battle between labor and capital, all of 
these, involving as the> do grave political and economic 
questions, are sufficient to excite our solicitude and 
demand the exercise of our highest energies. They 
should teach us to guard with vigilance the narrow line 
that lies between Republican Government and Anarchy 
and Socialism on the one hand and the despotism of 
Aristocracy on the other. But how is this to be done.-* 
How are we to preserve our great Republic.'' Not simply 
by patriotic sentiment alone; not simply by celebrating 


the anniversaries of deeds done by our fathers. They 
are sufficient to inspire us with a love for these principles, 
but they are not sufficient to enable us to preserve and 
perpetuate them. The ancient Athenians were patriotic, 
but their Republic ended in a failure. The Romans were 
patriotic, but their Republic sank into the arms of a 
despotism. No purer, higher aspirations ever actuated 
the people of any land than that of the French people 
in 1793, but their Republic — their lofty dream — ended in 
anarchy and despotism because they were unacquainted 
with the principles of self government, and their liberty 
degenerated into license and ended in a colossal tragedy. 
But we, my friends, inheriting-'as we do the splendid 
conservatism of the Anglo-Saxon race and unfettered by 
the customs and traditions of an older country, have far 
greater advantages; and I am not willing to believe that 
this last great effort to demonstrate the capacity of man 
for self government is to end in ruin and disaster, and 
that the hope of the millions of down-trodden and 
oppressed throughout the world is to be extinguished 
forever. How is the danger to be averted and how are 
our institutions to be preserved.^ I answer the question 
and say that this can only be done by maintaining a 
liberal system of public education. Republican govern- 
ment with us is founded upon the idea that the people 
are the rulers, and if these rulers are ignorant of the 
principles of government and are susceptible of being 
imposed upon by the political charlatan, there can be no 
hope of maintaining our institutions. It is therefore a 
matter of self preservation that such a government 
should afford educational facilities to the people and that 
the youth of the land should, among other things, be 
taught at least the elementary principles of government. 
This must be done in order that they may better under- 
stand the peculiar features of our own institutions, and 




Gkorge T. Winstox, LL. D. 

President of tlie University of North Carolina. 


that they ma}- be prepared to weigh propositions, detect 
fallacies and come to a rational conclusion of what is 
the best means of preserving the blessings of liberty for 
which our forefathers fought upon this and other blood}- 
fields of the revolution. I have said far more than I 
intended to say, but I repeat that if this ideal government 
of mankind is to be fully developed and preserved, it 
can only be accomplished through the moral and polit- 
ical education of the people. 

There can be no nobler cause, no higher or holier 
ambition. It lifts our aspirations to the highest plane of 
moral elevation and inspires all that is divine within our 

Let us then, fellow citizens, when we leave this historic 
spot, resolve to devote all the resources of our minds 
and hearts to the perpetuation of our Republic, and when 
we have succeeded in vindicating the capacity of man 
for self government, we will have furnished a light and a 
hope to all nations to guide them in the ways of peace, 
justice and harmony, and we may look forward with 
confidence to the time when armies will be disbanded, 
when the "war-drum" will throb no longer, "and the 
battle-flags be furled in the Parliament of man. the Fed- 
eration of the world." 

Mr. Morehead then introduced the distinguished 
President of the University of North Carolina, who was 
received with great applause. 


The character of North Carolina was clearlj' seen in 
the battle of Guilford. The first shock of that battle 
was borne by her sturdy Militia; the last charge was 
made by her splendid Volunteers. 


For nearly a century others have claimed the glories 
of this immortal day, and the voice of calumny has 
whispered slanders upon the silent graves of our silent 
heroes. But the truth is at last revealed. The President 
of this Company, by written records, by oral testimony 
and by local tradition, with the zeal of a patriot and the 
instinct of an artist, has brought before us the scenes of 
that day and repainted the battle of Guilford. 

Behold in front our rude Militia facing for the first 
time a gleaming column of British bayonets. On, on 
they come with steady march and unbroken line. The 
Militia stand to their posts, with rifles aiming through 
the fence. Their orders are to fire twice and then 
retreat. The British are almost upon them. A flash of 
fire bursts through the fence; and the crack of rifles 
echoes along the line. The Militia might now give place 
to better armed and more experienced soldiers. But 
many cling to the spot, and resolutely load their clumsy 
rifles, almost within touch of the enemy. It is folly and 
madness to stay longer. The British veterans hold the 
field. The Continental Army is swept away. Amid 
shouts of triumph Cornwallis is tasting the fruits of 
victory, but even upon his lips they turn to ashes of 
sorrow. In front of his victorious army hangs a body 
of men who will not surrender. It is Joseph Winston 
with his gallant Volunteers. Slowly retreating from 
tree to tree they hurl back the challenge of death in the 
face of victory. The glad woods arc shouting to the 
music of their rifles. The sad victors are marching to 
the dance of death. Well might the Earl of Chatham 
exclaim: "One more such victory will ruin the British 
Arm}'." It was a victory whose logical sequence was 
the surrender at Yorktown and the freedom of America. 

There are moments in human history when time pauses 
in her flight and hovers doubtful which way to turn, until 


human courage and human genius direct her course. 
Such a moment was the battle of Guilford. As the 
recording angel looked down upon the deeds of that day 
and inscribed upon the eternal scroll the merits of the 
actors in that bloody fight, she wrote of the North Caro- 
lina soldiers, "they were foremost in the line of battle 
and hindmost in retreat." 

Rut the character of North Carolina needs not to be 
studied on fields of battle. It shines forth with clear and 
steady brilliance in all the history of her people. '! he 
colorless beams of the noon-day sun, as they pour down 
from the blue vault of heaven upon field and forest are 
more beautiful and more powerful than the dazzling 
splendors of the Northern Aurora. The tiny dew drop 
proclaims the majesty of God no less than the thunder- 
ing cataract. The silent force of gravity hath power to 
hush the whirlwind and calm the earthquake. As the 
steady forces of nature are grander than her outbursts of 
energ}', so the character of North Carolina is greater 
than the heroism of Guilford. It needs not the loving 
labors of a Schenck nor the patriotic munificence of a 
Holt to acquit her soldiers of cowardice. The record of 
a century overwhelms the slanders of a day. The blood 
upon a hundred battle fields blushes to shame the 

Where was ever a people quicker or bolder in resisting 
oppression.^ One hundred years before the union of the 
Colonies they drove from their borders their British 
Governors. They defied the royal authority, and 
remained for years under no government save that of 
local leaders. The first blood of the Revolution was 
shed in North Carolina. The clash of arms resounded 
upon the field of Alamance four years before Bunker 
Hill. Twelve months before the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence at Philadelphia the men of Mecklenburg 


absolved themselves from British allegiance and plighted 
to the cause of liberty their lives, their fortunes and their 
sacred honor. No wonder the Colony was characterized 
as turbulent and lawless. Beneath their turbulence was 
a love of peace and a spirit of obedience to rightful 

"Are there any," says Bancroft, "who doubt man's 
capacity for self government, let them study the history 
of North Carolina; its inhabitants were restless and tur- 
bulent in their imperfect submission to a government 
imposed on them from abroad; the administration of the 
Colony was firm, humane and tranquil, when they were 
left to take care of themselves." 

North Carolina has always been quick to fight for lib- 
erty and slow to yield it. She hesitated to adopt the 
Federal Constitution for fear of surrendering the liberties 
which she had wrung in blood from the grasp of colonial 
despots. She demanded of the new Republic those safe- 
guards which the experience of a century has shown to 
be necessary for the preservation of liberty. She would 
not enter the sisterhood of States unless the foundations 
of the national temple should rest upon the bedrock of 
personal liberty and local self government. 

But she has not guarded liberty with selfish zeal. 
Her blood has flowed in defence of others. 

The dust of her soldiers sleeps in the soil of her sister 
States. The resurrection trump will form their ranks 
again. From King's Mountain and Guilford, from New 
(3rleans and Chapultepec, from Gettysburg and the Wil- 
derness will rise arms that yielded only in death, and 
hearts that never beat with fear. There will assemble, 
too, that faithful band which endured the horrors of 
Reconstruction and yielded not the jewel of liberty; that 
faithful band whose silent but stern defiance was mightier 
than the weight of bullets or the edge of steel. 


Hon. Robert P. Dick. 

Judge of the V. S District Court. 


The character of North Carolina is deep written in the 
lives of her sons. Other States are eminent for com- 
merce and manufactures, for science and literature, for 
wealth and art; North Carolina is eminent for love of 
liberty. Let others inscribe what they like upon the 
book of our national life; North Carolina has already 
inscribed, "Unyielding resistence to unjust authority," 

Judge Dick was sick on the day of the celebration and 
the audience was deprived of the pleasure which they 
expected of listening to his address 

Everything emanating from Judge Dick is always read 
with interest. 


united states district court. 

Ladies and Gentlemen: 

There are certain days in every year that have associa- 
tions and memories that are suggestive of peculiar 
thoughts and emotions. 

Some of our national holidays have elements of holi- 
ness as they recall memories of divine blessings and 
associations. The Fourth Day of July, 1776, was the 
birthday of our Great Republic. Our patriotic forefathers 
before that time had been under separate Colonial 
Governments, in some degree dependent on the Crown 
of Great Britain, but on that memorable day they 
announced to mankind in positive terms, in systematized 
form, the just and fundamental truths and principles of 
equality, justice, freedom and human rights. The 
American Declaration of Independence was the Magna 
Charta of a new age in the progress of humanity— it was 


the vital breath that God breathed into a brave and 
united people, and they became an enlightened nation of 
freemen, and entered upon their manifest destiny of 
ennobling, emancipating and evangelizing the world. 

This birthday of our nation should be annually 
observed both as a galaday and a holyday. The 
momentous event which it commemorates was achieved 
by grand and noble men under the prompting, direction 
and guidance of the Infinite Ruler of the Universe, and 
its principles and influences have been ever advancing in 
progress and widening in beneficences. I firmly believe 
that the F'ourth Day of Jul)', 1776, was to all mankind a 
birthday of well organized human equality, justice and free- 
dom, and its manifold blessings will be realized by all the 
races of mankind in the coming ages in every continent 
and in the island empires of the ocean. The emancipa- 
tion and evangelization of the whole human race is 
now not only a possibility, but an almost assured proba- 

The divine light of our Christian civilization and 
freedom in the splendor and beneficence of this progress 
seems to be illuminating the glorious certitudes of the 

We who are here present are peculiarly fortunate in 
the celebration of this day, on this locality, consecrated 
by the heroism and the blood of our noble forefathers, 
and where were done the decisive deeds that insured our 
National Independence and freedom. This field of fame 
and the sacred graves of the heroic dead are priceless 
heritages belonging to the whole nation; but we are the 
local guardians and specially entrusted custodians. 
Upon us rest honorable and sacred responsibilities and 
duties which we should recognize, assume and faithfully 
perform. Many of the old trees are still here that were 
in vigorous prime when their leafless twigs quivered in 


the March winds of 1781 and felt the shock of the battle 
and the cannon's roar. Here are the same fields, valleys 
and hills where the valiant combatants struggled in the 
<leadly conflict. Here too are the springs whose flowing 
waters were once crimsoned with patriotic blood; and 
they bore their holy libation on their murmuring currents 
as they followed Cornwallis and his army on their 
retreating march toward the sea, and then onward went 
to mingle their precious tributes with the ocean billows 
that encircle the globe. Castalia and Hippocrene were 
fountains of poetic inspiration to the imaginative, patriotic 
and heroic Greeks, and why should not Clyde, Leonidas 
and Winston Springs— as their limpid and refreshing 
waters flow on forever — awaken and keep alive in us and 
in our posterity sacred memories and patriotic affections 
that will ever be fervent in their glow.' 

Why should not the battle field of Guilford Court 
House be regarded as "haunted and holy ground" since 
it was once consecated by the life blood of the noble and 
brave who died in the heroic struggle for home, countr}- 
and human rights.' Why should not this arena of glorious 
achievements and this Cemetery iof the heroic dead be 
made handsome and attractive by the taste and industry 
of careful culture and loving care and by the generosit}' 
of our enlightened, patriotic and grateful people, enjoying 
in rich abundance the blessings that here were won, arid 
thus be a truthful memorial witness to posterity that we 
were worthy descendants of our noble forefathers and 
make after generations proud to claim us as their justl}- 
\enerated sires.' 

Why should not this important battle field have its 
deserved place on the pages of history, and be promi- 
nently ranked with the other memorable battle fields of 
freedom whose historic names have thrilled the yearning 
and longing hearts of oppressed humanity in every age, 


and often inspired heroes with hope, strength, endurance 
and courage as they struggled to obtain and secure their 
God-given birthright of equality, justice and hberty 
which had long been cruelly usurped and withheld by 
the bloody hands and oppressive power of tyrants and 
despots? In the progressive development of the cause 
of human freedom the names of some of its great battle 
fields may be thus truthfully classified and associated: 
Marathon and Thermopylae, Morganten and Sempach, 
Stirling and Bannockburn, Marston Moor and Naseby, 
Bunker Hill and Saratoga, Guilford Court House and its 
consequent Yorktown. Here on this hallowed place was 
struck the decisive blow that inevitabl}' resulted in 
freedom from Colonial dependence and British rule. 

No enlightened English statesman or general ever 
entertained hopes of the subjugation of the American 
States after the battle of Guilford Court House and the 
retreating march of Cornvvallis. Subsequent battles 
were only the spasmodic efforts of humbled national 
pride and dying domination, and were solely prompted 
by the irritated feelings of a feeble and bigoted king and 
his servile ministry. Had the fruitless victory of Corn- 
wallis been a substantial triumph that would have 
encouraged him to move on to Richmond, the Independ- 
ence of the American States would have been postponed 
many disastrous years but our heroic fathers, after many 
sufferings, would have achieved their freedom. Their 
dauntless and indomitable spirit was truly exhibited and 
expressed by Washington when in days of darkness- 
trial and disaster he said, "Strip me of the wretched and 
suffering remnant of my soldiers; take from me all I have 
left — leave me but a standard — give me but the means of 
planting it upon the mountains of West Augusta, and I 
will yet draw around me the men who will lift up their 
wronged and bleeding country from the dust and set her 


I feel sure that all persons engaged here to-day in 
honoring the memories of our patriot fathers by remem- 
bering and proclaiming their virtues and heroism, must 
necessarily have the best thoughts and emotions of their 
natures vividly awakened, and I am confident that we 
will all return to our homes with more kind, s\'mpathetic 
and generous feelings towards each other. 

This vast assembly by their presence have honored 
themselves and all the members of the Battle Ground 
Company who under the diligent efforts and constant 
superintendence of their efficient and worthy President 
have prepared these handsome grounds and afforded so 
many means and opportunities of rational enjoyment and 

They have greatly honored Judge Schenck who with 
arduous research, graphic pen and eloquent voice has 
evoked, recorded and proclaimed the truth of history 
after the most oblivious silence of a century, and vindi- 
cated the names and just fame of the patriotic men who 
as inexperienced and untrained Volunteer soldiers, 
faithfully did their duties and obeyed the express orders 
of their great commander, in the foremost line, confronted 
by the best disciplined troops then in the world, veterans 
of many victories, moving forward in "battle's magnifi- 
cently stern array." We have all greeted with grateful 
welcome the distinguished men who with eloquent voices 
and genial intercourse have contributed so much to our 
pride and pleasure on this occasion. With assurances of 
high appreciation we return sincere thanks to the noble 
and generous men and women who have erected Monu- 
ments and Memorials here or who have otherwise given 
assistance and encouragement to the Guilford Battle 
Ground Company in performing the labor of love that 
has made this Park so beautiful and this celebration so 
successful, ennobling and enjoyable. We delight to 


honor Gov^ernor Thomas M. Holt, who with munificent 
liberality has erected the appropriate, costly and hand- 
some Monument soon to be unveiled before us by the hands 
of lovely girls — representatives of youth, beauty, purity,, 
truth, patriotism and home. His wise, just, impartial and 
beneficent administration of the office of L hief Executive 
of our State will have an eminent place in our civil and 
political annals, but his name inscribed on this Monu- 
ment as donor will ev^er be his highest honor as it will 
associate him for all time with the heroic men and deeds 
that conferred immortal glory on the battle of Guilford 
Court House. 

I know that you will all cordially join me in the hope 
and desire that celebrations like this may annually occur 
in the future, and that from year to year the influences 
and blessings of American freedom and Christian civiliza- 
tion may be increased and expanded, may be preserved 
to us and be perpetuated to our posterity and may be 
extended over the whole world to the coming generations 
of all races until there shall no longer be seen deeds of 
violence, oppression and wrong, and no longer be heard 
the cries of suffering, misery, servitude and cruel strife 
and war. and there shall prevail in all the realms and 
climes of earth, among men and nations, the truths, 
principles and blessings of universal freedom, justice, 
peace and Christian charity. 

Right Rev. Jos. Blount Cheshire, Jr., D. U. 

Bishop of Xorth Carolina. 





Bishop Cheshire, being loudly called, responded as 

Ladies and Gentlemen: 

It affords me great pleasure to be present on this 
occasion and to take part in these interesting pro- 

I am present, not only out of respect to the National 
Holiday and the unveiling of the Monument erected by 
the patriotism of our late Governor, but also to honor a 
man whose generosity has made him the champion of 
the unknown dead, and who has spent not only money 
but the energies and resources of his very life in 
vindicating the reputation of our State. I have felt 
myself stirred to a more earnest love of my country as I 
listened to the eloquent words of Judge Schenck and 
saw how his heart throbbed and his eye kindled with 
ardor in behalf of those who for a hundred years had 
found no friend or advocate among us all. 

Before I entered upon the duties of my present calling, 
I had devoted some time and attention to the earl}- 
history of our State and our people. And since under- 
taking the sacred and exacting duties of a minister of 
the Gospel, I have not felt that my time and energies 
have been misapplied in pursuing the same subject and 
devoting some part of my time to the religious and 
secular history of the Province and State of North 
Carolina. I do not herein forget that it is my business 
to make my labors all tend toward the learning and the 
teaching of God's Word; but I believe that God still 
speaks and should be heard and seen in the events 


of Providence and in the development of the world's 

We read in the historical books of the Bible how God 
dealt with His people, and the history of their wars and 
conquests and defeats and captivities is a part of this 
revelation of Himself to us. Besides the miraculous 
element there is this element of Providential teaching in 
the ordinary course of personal, social and national 
e.xperience. The question is: Have the ways of God 
with man changed or is He still present among men; 
and do the great events of national and international 
history, no less than the small things of personal 
experience, manifest His power and goodness.^ Much 
of the Bible has been written in vain unless we learn 
from it that no events of history are without His 
Providential ordering and that we must see Him as 
surely in the midst and giving to the cause of truth and 
justice the real and final victory, as when David heard 
the sound of "a song" in the tops of the mulberry trees, 
and in that assurance went forward to the conquest of 
his enemies. 

In that great struggle, one event of which we to-day 
commemorate; in the subsequent history of our civil and 
political development and progress; in all the affairs of 
our country, as well as in the private experience of our 
individual lives, God is with us; and it is the part of 
Christians to seek to know Him in all His ways and to 
thank Him for all His deliverances, disasters, trials and 

The men who asserted the cause of human rights and 
national Independence one hundred years ago, believed 
that they were fighting for God's truth; and we thank 
God this day for their courage, patriotism, faith and 




cx^^C^^^x- \^ yr ^^a.^^^-;?^ 

8 1 

Mr. Morehead said: 

A distinguished member of the Supreme Court of 
North CaroHna honors us a second time with his 
presence. I introduce to you the Hon. Walter Clark, of 




My Friends and Fellow-Citizens: 

When the Israelites of old had crossed the river 
Jordan you remember that they erected twelve pillars of 
stone. These were to serve as mementoes that, though 
thereafter living on both sides of that river, they should 
remain one people forever; that since as one nation 
together they had struggled up to freedom through the 
terrible passage of the wilderness, and as an united people 
they had overthrown the heathen and conquered their 
homes in the Promised Land, that thenceforth on either 
bank of that stream they should forever remain as 
brethren in peace and amity. Between us and our 
friends of the North there is a chasm as deep, as 
ineffaceable and as historic as the river Jordan was to 
the Hebrews of old, and through it there roll waves of 
memory as sacred to us as the waters of their sacred 
river were to them. But Guilford Court House and such 
fields as this will ever be reminders to us more durable 
and more lasting than monumental marble, that though 
living on either side of that chasm yet we are brethren. 
We are brethren in the glorious memories of the struggle 
of the great Revolution. We are brethren in the 
common memory of an hundred years of peace and 


progress, and we are brethren in the common hope of a 
long enduring future of peace and happiness and pros- 
perity for us and our children. 

But, my friends, as the Hebrews of old would not have 
diminished by a single drop the waters of their sacred 
river, so we will not dim the effulgence of a single ray 
of the glorious memories associated with the eventful 
years of the great struggle of 1861-65. 

This hallowed spot is also a stern reminder to us of 
the fact that our liberties and our institutions and our 
government were not given to us by those in power. 
They were not handed down to us as Charters from 
princes and kings, but the masses — the people — the great 
common people, determined that they would take charge 
of this government and administer it in the interest of 
all the people, and that resolution they made good b\' 
their own good right arms and by their best blood on 
this and other fields. 

But, my friends, they did not peril their lives, they did 
not go down to dusty death, in order that accumulations 
of capital should be substituted in the place of princes 
and kings in the government of this people. We have 
forgotten and forgiven those who sided with the enemy 
in our struggle for liberty in 1776, but we cannot 
forget and we will never forgive the men who shall 
endeavor to pervert this government from its original 
purpose, and seek to confiscate in the interest of a class 
those benefits that were bought with the blood of the 
brave for the good of all mankind. 

As long as the memories of this field shall remain and 
as long as there shall abide a single grain of the soil strug- 
gled over by the heroes of 'y6 on this and other battle 
fields, may there rest in your hearts and mine and in the 
h-earts of our children for all time a stern determination 

.PljSi-l- '-.^ 


Hox. Kemp P. Battle, LL. D. 

Professor of History in the University of North Carolina. 


that this government shall be administered by all the 
people, for the benefit of the whole people, without 
respect to section or class. 

Mr. Morehead gracefully said: 

Accepting it as true that the noblest study of mankind is 
man, and that there is no light for the future but the lamp 
of experience, the historian naturally stands in the front 
ranks of the interesting and useful of earth. We wish to 
hear from Chapel Hill's distinguished Professor of 
History, the Hon. Kemp P. Battle, LL. D. 


of n jrth carolina. 

Mr. President and Fellow-Citizens: 

I hoped to be able to attend this most interesting 
celebration without being called on for even a short 
speech. I came to show my appreciation of, and grati- 
tude for, the unselfish labors of the President of the 
Guilford Battle Ground Company (Ex-Judge Schenck) 
in elucidating our past history, and of the generosity of 
Ex-Governor Holt in erecting this handsome Monument 
to Revolutionary Heroes. I wished particularly to do 
honor to those two great men, Joseph Winston and Jesse 
Franklin, because, in 1789, when the General Assembly 
inaugurated the Institution for which I have been laboring 
so long, they were selected among its earliest Trustees. 
And I am proud to call attention to the fact that the 
present very able President of the University is a relative 


of Joseph Winston, and that the learned Judge Jesse 
Frankhn Graves, a Trustee and patron of the University, 
is a grandson of Governor Jesse FrankHn. 

We now see that the opprobium cast by careless 
writers on our countrymen was, as a rule, undeserved. 
From childhood I was taught that our Militia on these 
grounds behaved with shameless poltroonery. There 
was the picture in my mind of long rows of rifles, loaded 
and cocked, hair-triggers all sprung, left sticking through 
the rail fence on the declivity of yonder hill, while the 
North Carolina Militia, the owners of those rifles, ran 
frantically, not only to the rear, but to their distant 
homes. There was a story of an Edgecombe man so 
desperately frightened that in endeavoring to mount a 
loose horse standing in his way he leaped entirely over 
his back, and without turning ran at full speed Eastward, 
and next morning, footsore and breathless, ate his frugal 
breakfast on the banks of the Tar. If he had performed 
this exploit in our day he would doubtless have received 
from Commissioner Raum a pension of twenty-five 
dollars a month as a broken-winded man. He did not 
shed his blood, but he poured out his breath in the cause 
of his country. 

These old legendary falsehoods, along with many 
others about our ancesters, have been dispelled, and 
our children can be taught to be proud of their achieve- 

I must say a few words in recognition of the deeds and 
services of the women of the Revolution. The men 
have had their full dues from the speakers who have 
preceded me. Without the unselfish sacrifices and labors 
of the women, their husbands, fathers, brothers and sons 
could not have won our freedom. They assisted in 
providing food and clothing and in moulding the bullets 
for them. They cared for the sick and wounded, 


furnished information of hostile movements, aye, and 
often with manlike bravery defended their homes from 
tories and robbers. 

I could give many instances of individual heroism, 
but I have only time for two or three. Elizabeth, 
wife of the gallant Colonel Arthur Forbis, and 
his sister, Mrs. Mary (or Molly) Morgan, were par- 
ticularly eminent in all good works. And then 
there was Mrs. Martha Bell, born a MacFarlane, 
who lived on Deep River a few miles South of us. Her 
husband was with General Greene when Cornwallis, with 
his crippled army, camped on her plantation, on which 
was a valuable mill. Making her house his headquarters, 
the British General was courteous enough to ask if she 
had any objection to his appropriating her mill for 
grinding corn for his soldiers. 

She said: "General, will you burn my mill after you 
have finished the grinding.^" 

"No, Madame," said he, "I assure you of its safety." 

"Well, Sir, you can have it. But if you had not 
given me your word for its protection, I would certainly 
have applied the torch with my own hands this very 

She used to relate that Cornwallis, although the day 
was raw and gusty, insisted on opening the door looking 
to the North and often gazing anxiously up the road. 
She asked him the reason for his strange conduct. His 
reply was "I am listening for any sounds of General 
Greene following me. Madame, I never saw such fight- 
ing since God made me." 

As nearly all the physicians of the State were engaged 
in the military service, Mrs. Bell, like many other good 
women of the old time, became peculiarly skilled in the 
healing art. Far and near, by day and by night, she 
journeyed for the purpose of ministering to suffering 


humanity. Once while riding through a lonely forest a 
thieving tory leaped into the road and seizing her bridle 
rein demanded her horse and other valuables. Instantly 
drawing one of the two pistols which she always carried 
in her nocturnal journeys, she captured the would be 
robber, and marched him to the nearest Whig force, and 
delivered him up for punishment. 

While keeping in perpetual remembrance the great 
leader, Greene, who commanded the American forces on 
this hard fought field, let us not forget the services to 
the world, and especially to our Southland, rendered by 
his wife. After our Independence had been gained, she 
and her husband lived in Georgia on a beautiful and 
valuable plantation given to the General by the State. 
After his death a young man from Connecticut came 
to the neighborhood of Mrs. Greene to take charge of a 
school. Finding that the place was filled, he was invited 
by Mrs. Greene to make her house his home while he 
engaged in the study of the law. Grateful for her kind- 
ness, the stranger endeavored to repay it by aiding in 
repairs of the agricultural implements on the plantation, 
showing a marvelous mechanical genius and skill. 
British inventors had greatly perfected the machinery 
for spinning and weaving cotton, but the want of the raw 
material was the obstacle in the way of its full develop- 
ment. The separation of lint from the seed was slowly 
and blunderingly performed by a machine composed of 
two wooden rollers like that we used during the Civil 
War for squeezing the juice out of the sorghum cane. A 
cleaner but slower process was by the fingers of the 
slaves and members of the family. It was the rule that 
none of the whites should be allowed to seek repose until 
they haci filled one of their shoes with seed. This rule, 
I conjecture, led naturally to the cultivation by the 
females of small feet, in order that their tasks might be 


shortened, so that it may be safely concluded that a 
modern belle who is the possessor of entrancingly minute 
pedal extremities is a lineal descendant of the old cotton 

A number of Southern gentlemen, dining at Mrs. 
Greene's hospitable mansion, were deploring their 
inability to furnish cotton lint to the manufacturers as 
fast as needed. The hostess declared that her guest, the 
young New Englander, could invent a machine for the 
purpose. They all urged him to make the trial. He 
agreed to do so, Mrs. Greene furnishing him a room 
where he could experiment unobserved on the puzzling 
problem. In a few months this young man, by the 
invention of the sawgin, was transformed from an obscure 
school teacher into the world famous Whitney. His 
invention, by furnishing the raw material for the machines 
of Hargreaves and Arkwright, Cartwright and Crompton, 
brought such wealth to Great Britain as enabled her to 
save Europe from the grasp of the despot, Napoleon, 
and gave to our Southland the command of the greatest 
money crops of the world. 

Ladies and gentlemen, I could go on for hours detailing 
the virtues of the women of the Revolution, but the hour 
is late and other speakers must be heard. I trust that I 
have said enough to induce you, when gratefully 
acknowledging our indebtedness to our forefathers for 
their prowess in that trying conflict, to find a place in 
your hearts for our foremothers also. 


Mr. Moreliead said: 

I have purposly reserved one distinguished name for 
the last. I have the honor of introducing to you Judge 
Jesse FrankHn Graves, the noble grandson of a noble 


iViY Fellow-Citizens: 

I do not come before you as most of the gentlemen 
who have preceded me; I come before you as one who 
has believed from childhood that the North Carolina 
Volunteer Militia stood their ground and fought bravely 
on this bloody battle field. From my mother's lips I 
have heard the story told; from the lips of the only sister 
of that gallant Talliaferro, whose name is inscribed upon 
your Monument, I have listened to the tale; from the 
lips of her husband, Shadrach Franklin, I have heard of 
how the Minute Men of Surry stood with Winston and 
with Campbell and with Armstrong upon the battle field 
of Guilford Court House. I verily believed it from 
childhood, but while I have believed it many have 
doubted it, and I am under great and lasting obligations 
to the President of this Company, and to all who have 
aided him, for bringing forth the truth of history and 
for vindicating the names of our ancestors from the 
aspersions sought to be cast upon them. 

It is fitting, my countrymen, that freemen should 
oather on the anniversary day of their declared Inde- 
pendence and join in celebrating the occasion, not for 
mere display, but to inculcate and warm up the sentiment 
of patriotism, the highest human sentiment; made up of 
the love of the parent for the child; the love of the home 
that shelters the happy family; the love of the fruitful 


land that sustains us; the love of our altars and the graves 
of our ancestors; the love of good faith to our fellow-men, 
united in a common government pledged to the mutual 
protection of all that is sacred and dear; and for the 
perpetuation of that liberty of the individual citizen, 
attained at such fearful cost, and justly esteemed highest 
of the "inalienable rights" of man. 

On the Fourth Day of July, 1776, the thirteen discon- 
tented Colonies of England became thirteen Independ- 
ent States. These, of their own volition, made the 
United States which has grown to be the grand Repub- 
lic of Republics; and to-day the citizens in all parts of 
this Union of States join in celebrating the high resolves 
of our ancestors, made one hundred and seventeen years 

As citizens of North Carolina, we have especial reason 
to be proud of the fearless patriotism of our forefathers, 
because they were first to assert independence, at 
Charlotte, at Edenton, and in that grand and noble con- 
vention of the people of the whole State at Halifax, and 
because they were brave on every battle field from New 
Jersey to Georgia to maintain the resolves made in 

The thanks of our own North Carolina people are 
justly due to the President of this Company for his zeal 
and ability in vindicating the valor of our ancestors from 
the aspersions some had sought to cast upon them for 
their conduct on this field. 

I come before you with feelings of peculiar pride; I 
am proud of North Carolina and all that her sons have 
done; but I am before you with peculiar pride for the 
reason that Jesse Franklin, my grandfather, was in the 
bloody contest on this battle field, and I admit that I am 
proud to see his name inscribed on the beautiful Monu- 
ment which is dedicated to the memory of the heroes 


who here turned back the proud invaders. An uncle of 
my father was wounded nigh unto death as Talliaferro 
fell— Richard Talliaferro, my grandfather's comrade, who 
was cut down at his side — and I am proud to see his 
name perpetuated on this noble Memorial. 

In my boyhood and youth old Aunt Judith Franklin, 
the sister of this gallant Richard Talliaferro, used to tell 
me the story of this great battle as the participant in the 
fight had told it to her. I cannot give the details of 
individual acts of heroism ; the substance of her statement 
is this: 

"Surry was a big County, extending from Rockingham 
Westward. There was the same Militia organization as 
in the other counties, and besides there was a volunteer 
organization of Whigs called 'Minute Men,' pledged 
by solemn vows to be ready to go to the front of the 
fight immediately, whenever called, at their own expense, 
furnishing their own horses, arms and ammunition. They 
used rifles; they carried pouch and horn or gourd for 
ammunition; no baggage wagon; no baggage, except 
the little each man took for himself They drew no pay. 
They had gone with Cleveland on many a foray. Many 
of them went to King's Mountain. 

When Greene made up his mind to fight the British, 
he sent out his secret messages to these 'Minute Men,' 
and immediately they got ready. The women folks 
moulded the bullets. Some went with Winston, who 
lived in the lower part of the County; some went with 
Campbell and his men, whom they knew at King's 
Mountain. Campbell came from his home on the Holston 
down the Mountain at Flower Gap and marched through 
the 'Hollow,' and many Whigs joined him as he went to 
be ready for the fight. Winston was there and some of 
the Armstrongs, Williams and Cunninghams and Jesse 
Franklin and Richard Talliaferro. On the day of the 


fight they carried their bullets in their mouths— no time 
for cutting patching then. My poor brother was killed 
by the British Dragoons, who came riding them down 
with their great swords. The men of Surry went to 
fight — and they did. They did not shoot for nothing." 

The account which comes from my mother is much the 

Richard Talliaferro was of a Virginia famil}' still 
prominent in that State. Shadrach C. Franklin, Dr. 
Thompson and others of his family are reputable citizens 
of Surry County to-day. Some have gone to Tennessee, 
some to Alabama and some to Missouri, and have 
made and maintained fair reputations in their adopted 

I hope I may be pardoned for a brief reference to the 
brave Talliaferro's comrade in this battle. Jesse Frank- 
lin's mother was a sister of the noted Whig leader. 
Benjamin Cleveland, and the brave old Colonel put 
great confidence in his nephew, and placed him in many 
positions where his courage and discretion were severely 
taxed. He always came up to his uncle's high expecta- 

After the War for Independence was over, Jesse 
Franklin, at the age of twenty-five, became a member of 
the Legislature from Surry first and afterwards from 
Wilkes. About 1794 he was elected to the House of 
Representatives in the Federal Congress. In 1798 he 
was elected United States Senator and was re-elected 
about 1804. He was President /;'f tent, of the Senate in 
1 804-1 805. 

He was an ardent Republican at that day and a warm 
supporter of Jefferson during his administration. He 
was a close and intimate friend of Nathaniel Macon, and 
shared with him a love of simplicity in life and a contempt 
for show. He would never have his portrait made, 


saying if a man's deeds did not preserve his memory, a, 
poor picture would be soon forgotten and thrown- 

After his terms in the Senate expired he held many 
important places in the general government. About 
1820 he was elected Governor of the State and served 
one year. His health failed and he declined a re-election 
and retired to the quiet of his home on the beautiful little 
valley at the head of Fishers river, where he spent the 
remnant of his life with his family. He died in 1824, 
aged sixty-four years. 

He was a grave, quiet, thoughtful man, quick to 
comprehend, prompt to conclude and ready to act. Not 
highly educated in the sense of the school man he was 
well informed in ancient and modern history, the science 
and philosophy of his day, and all the affairs of govern- 
ment. State and National. 

He left three sons and five daughters. His descendants 
are numerous, some in North Carolina, some in Tennessee 
and some in Mississippi. Many of them fell in the Con- 
federate armies. 

We of the present day have endeavored to discharge 
our trust, and before very long we will leave to younger 
men the preservation of the heritage of freedom which 
has come down to us. 

Dangers have been passed, but there are dangers 
ahead. The Government was intended for the benefit of 
the people. Monopolies, class legislation, tending to 
build up powerful corporations and aggregating vast 
wealth in the hands of the few, threaten on the one hand. 
The surrender of the individual man, the craven spirit 
that would pray for help at the hand of the creature, the 
Government which our forefathers made and which we 
support and maintain, and a disposition to surrender 


individual will, individual thought and individual action 
to the directions of intriguing cabals, in societies with 
spacious names, are dangers on the other hand. 

The only safety to our liberty regulated by law is the 
warm, firm, unflinching patriotism which intelligently 
looks for the right, determined to do it. 

Be men; be freemen; self reliant, independent free- 
men, proud of that sovereignty which we leave with you. 




This beautiful poem was read by Miss Alice Jones, a 
talented young elocutionist, of Greensboro, North Caro- 
lina, May 4, 1889. 


Here rolls the field of Guilford's dead, 
Here Britain's sons, to battle bred 
By Solway, Thames and Shannon, 
Were taught the sting of Hiram's lead, 
And Hiram learned of cannon. 
Here came our hunter Hiram rude 
To front the dam of war, whose brood 
Was drum-tapped from her couching. 
To learn the mother's hungry mood 
The lion's thirsty crouching. 
Here hearts beat wild, or ceased to beat. 
Here men lay down beneath the feet 
Of battle goaded horses; 
While heel and point the sabres meet 
Above their pallid corses. 
Here, shot and barred and lit of fire, 
The tawny war-cloud, rolling dire. 
Was reft and rocked of thunder, 
While Hesse struck for England's hire 
And Hiram fought in wonder. 

Two rounds! 'Tis done! Shame Clio, shame 

To mar the humble, simple fame 

Won by our hunter yeoman. 

Whose twice lit tongue of bolted flame 

Blazed full upon his foeman. 

First picket of the nation, lone, 

Thy woodman's home an outpost thrown 

■Beyond the peaceful border; 

For you no star but God's e'er shone, 

'To you no crested order 

Its ribbon gave. Brave, rugged heart 

'The ambushed foe, th^ arrow's smart, 

The beast with fangs, the savage 

With stealthy tread a'nd wily art, 

The wild foray, its ravage, 

These name thee picket, soldier, Knight 

And first lance of the wilds, whose might 

'Was melted from the ladle; 

■Detailed at morn, at noon at night 

Enlisted from the cradle. 

Yet, fielded blue, our statehoods star. 

O'er Union stripe or Southern bar. 

Or wind waved, or depending. 

Where'er afloat from staff and spar, 

Where'er the world is bending. 

Is broidered gold by fire annealed 

And shaken free, has e'er revealed 

The threads of lone King's Mountain, '' 

Of Cowpen's plain and Guilford's field 

Spread wide around her fountain. 

Aye, white as flies the billows foam 

And free as heaves the green waves comb 

A thirteenth stripe is flowing: 

Thy ribbon 'tis, abroad, at home 

Where'er the sun is glowing. 

Ah, silent as the forests' gnome. 
No more thy restless footsteps roam 
Through woodland brake and thicket 
Thyself and shot have both struck home 
And peace relieves the picket. 

Salisbury, N. C. j. w. RuMPLE, 


A hundred years ago, or more, where now the wild flowers grow. 

A sturdy band of warriors stood, with front-face to the foe. 

The sunshine glistened on their guns, across the level plain. 

And sparkled on their gleaming swords, so lately drenched with rain- 

For the night had been tempestuous, with bitter sleet and hail, 

Where the camp-fires died in darkness, swept by the wintry gale; 

But now the sun was glorious, above the Eastern hills. 

While thoughts of coming battle every freeman's bosom thrills. 

The sons of Carolina, from mountain, shore and glen, 

Wer-e gathered in their patriot strength, a band of gallant men, 

Virginia too and Delaware and Maryland were there. 

Alike to share in bloody graves or victor's crown to wear; 

And o'er them flashing proudly, in the orange light of morn, 

The banner of the nation, by her hardy sons was borne. 

The silent sea of woods around, the over-bending blue, 

The sunshine sprinkling golden rain, upon the glittering dew. 

The crimson of the maples, the emerald of the pines, 
The whisper of the early breeze among the clinging vines, 
The crystal of the meadows, where silver streams ran by, 
The pearly clouds, soft fading, in the sapphire of the sky, 
All made a scene of beauty, while wreaths of golden mist, 
Floating upward from the valley, by rising sun-beams kissed. 
Hung graceful on the tree-tops, as loth to melt away. 
And lose their airy lightness, in the gorgeousness of day. 

Yes! Earth was full of beauty, of peacefulness and rest. 
And like a babe of innocence, reclining on her breast. 
Fond Nature was awakening with joyous thoughts of Spring, 
And listening with her tuneful ear to the low, soft murmuring 
That birds and brooks were making before the stir of men 
Should rudely break the witchery of valley, field and glen. 
Ah! terrible awakening from dreams of blest repose, 
By sounds of sudden battle, as the serried ranks uprose. 




Mrs. E. D. Hundlev. 




_N FC?ut-!P. T' : -r:- 


For soon on earth and heaven the fearful thunder broke, 

Tlie thunder of artillery, the flash, the blinding smoke, 

That slowly lifted up aloft, from every deadly gun. 

And from that scene of loveliness blotted the golden sun. 

All day the roar of battle surged across that blood-drenched plain. 

All day the ruthless riders were tramping o'er the slain, 

Greene, Davie and Campbell and Winston, too, were there, 

Like heroes of Thermopvl*, they fought against despair. 

And when the pall of darkness enwrapped the gloomy night, 
When the icy rain descended, and the wind in bitter might, 
The weary combat slackened; the foe, with sullen tread. 
Tramped here and there in silence, numbering their countless dead. 
That gory field was dearly bought, but all the world arounil, 
Eclioed the cry of freedom from Guilford's Battle Ground; 
And generations yet unborn, shall tell in song and story, 
The epic of that bloody fight, which woke a nation's glory. 

The silence of a hundred years upon these graves has lain, 

Where sleep these ancient heroes, in bloody battle sl-^^in, 

The Spring time in its beauty, the Summer in its prime, 

The dropping leaves of Autumn, each gladsome Christmas chime. 

Alike have passed unnoted by the quiet slumberers here. 

They lie in glory, let them rest, knowing no hope nor fear. 

'Tis ours to rear a marble shaft, 'neath heaven's o'er-arched dome, 

And link each name, with deathless fame, a hundred years to come. 

Shall they be unremembered, 

Those heroes of old? 
Their graves all forgotten. 

Their glory untold? 
Shall Time, in his flight, 

Bear their prestige away? 
And the deeds they have done, 

Be the thought of the day? 


Ah! no, from this spot, 

Let a pillar arise, 
And the gray of the stone 

Pierce the blue of the skies. 
Let the evergreen spring 

Where their ashes repose. 
And plant o'er them, sleeping. 

The lily and rose. 

On the columns above them, 

Let ivy entwine, 
'Neath the Palm of the South 

And the North-nurtured Pine. 
May the angel of dew, 

Rest light on the sod. 
Where their bodies are waiting 

The trumpet of God. 

The elm and the oak. 

O'er these martyrs of ours, 
Soft shadows shall fling. 

Where the eglantine flowers. 
Let the gold willow bend, 

In its gracefulness, low, 
While violets, like stars. 

In Spring time shall glow. 

Let the granite arise. 

Where our soldiers are laid, 
A pillar of praise, 

'Neath this emerald shade; 
Let each name be emblazoned 

In letters of gold. 
Where are gathered and garnered. 

These heroes of old. 

Let the winds whisper low, 
To the foot-steps around, 
"Tread lightly, 'tis sacred. 
This lone Battle Ground." 
Greensboro. N. C. Mrs. E. D. Hundlkt. 



Staunch relic of the ages gone ! 

Child of the centuries! 
Thy whisp'rings lave my spirits grave, 

In hushed soliloquies. 

Spring after Spiing has brought its bloom, 

And Fall has bronzed it o'er; 
Yet here You stand serenely grand 

As in the days of yore. 

To You Spring brings increase of strength. 

And Fall but needed rest; 
And loftier still with sturdy will 

You rear your royal crest. 

As Summer's sun or Winter's chill 

The face of Nature sears, 
Within You write of Time's slow flight — 

The score of dying years. 

Kings, Colonies, Republics, States, 
Have sprung and grown to power, 

And in Thy day, beneath Thy sway, 
Have breathed their little hour. 

You saw the dawn of liberty, 
When freedom Westward sped! 

The ages came! beneath her flame 
The tyrant's might is shed. 

You saw within these "Western Wilds" 

An infant nation's birth, 
And watched it grow through many a throe- 

The noblest now on earth. 


Rude patr'ots sought Thy shelt'ring boughs, 

When Britain's murcrrous might 
Their hearth-stones strewed with tears and blood 

And made all nature night. 

[Unarmed, unskilled, unclad, unshod, 

Determined to be free, 
Your sires, sir, and mine, right here, 

Paid life for liberty.] 

Near Thee the wary, weary Greene 

His war-worn blanket spread; 
And far around this sacred ground 

Still sleeps his glorious dead. 

In silence for one hundred years 

You've guarded well this spot — 
Each rood a grave of patriot brave. 

And seen their mem'ries rot. 

Cry "shame," Thou Witness of the deeds 

Of these blood-stained ones! 
With tongue of flame cry out "shame, shame," 

On their degen'rate sons. 

Cry "shame" till led by noble Schenck, 

This broad land brooks no pause. 
And we atone in brass and stone 

Full worthy of the cause. 

Joseph M. Mokehead. 

riToS,%^,^^?>< AND 

Hon. J. W. Cooper. 


The following fnteresting letter written by James 
Banks, Esq., I consider a very important link in North 
Carolina history. It is the first public printed defense of 
the North Carolina Militia at Guilford Court House ever 
published. The argument as far as it is prosecuted is 
clear and cogent and is based mostly upon uncontested 
facts. It contains many historical allusions which indicate 
the author's culture and taste. 

This letter, which delicately reproaches Caruthers for 
accepting as true the aspersions cast upon the North 
Carolina Militia b)' Lee and Johnson, when the facts in 
the published life of Dr. Caldwell contradicted this 
assumption, seems to have awakened the patriotism and 
pride of Caruthers and induced him to rectify his mistake. 
This he did nobly in the Second Series of his "North 
Carolina Sketches." 

Caruthers in turn inspired the author of "North Caro- 
lina, i/So-'iSi," to renew the controversy and to add to 
the defense such matter as he was enabled to collect and 

May others in succession, with more leisure and means, 
pursue the patriotic task until the honor of our troops 
shall be fully vindicated. 

November 20th, 1893. D. SCHENCK. 

From Fayetteville Observer of November igth, 18^^. 

Greensboro, N. C, November 5th, 1855. 
Mr. Editor: 

This morning I visited the battle ground of Guilford 
Court House. 

I was fortunate in securing the company of E. W. 
Caruthers, D. D., a gentleman who has alread\^ illustrated 


the patriotic valor of North Carolina's sons, \n two 
pubUcations which are familiar to all your readers, and 
who is now devoting his time to a history of the battle 
of Guilford, a battle which Mr. Benton in his "Thirty 
Years in the Senate of the United States," justly ranks 
among the decisive battles of the Revolution, and which 
has been so considered by the historians of that war. 

A ride of five miles over the road leading fr 


Greensboro to New Garden Meeting House, and beyond 
to Salem, brought us to "Martinsville," the former site 
of Guilford Court House. Not a vestige of the old Court 
House is to be seen, though its site is still pointed out on 
the West side of the road. Near it are several stone 
chimneys which indicate where the village once stood. 
On the East side of the road, nearly opposite these 
chimneys, there is still standing the homestead and store 
of the Lindsays of a former generation, but which hitherto 
the present owners have refused to sell. Long may these 
buildings stand — long may they remain in possession of 
the present owners and their descendants. 

From this point you have a commanding view of that 
portion of the ground on which the battle closed. 

But I prefer conducting you to where it commenced. 

From Martinsville, on the road toward Salem, you 
immediately descend a steep hill, at the bottom of which 
is a deep ravine, down which murmurs a gentle stream 
shaded by alder and other kinds of undergrowth. On 
crossing this stream you immediately ascend a long 
sloping hill. From Martinsville to near the top of this 
hill the land is cleared for about half a mile on both 
sides of the road, and the brow of the hill is a little over 
half a mile from Martinsville. At this point, the brow of 
the hill, the road enters a dense oak forest, and passes 
through it for about five hundred yards. In the latter 
two hundred yards the road gradually begins to descend 


another hill, so that when you emerge from its forest you 
have a fine commanding view of a descending open 
country for about a mile ahead, and cleared about a mile 
in width. Standing at the Northwest edge of the forest, 
you can see in the distance the Salem road down which 
the British marched to the scene of carnage March 15th. 

It was in the Northwest edge of this forest that the 
North Carolina raw Militia were planted, with their faces 
towards Salem. A worm fence in front enclosed the 
cleared fields through which the British marched to the 

About three hundred yards in the rear lay the Virginia 
Militia; and in their rear, on the brow of the hill, in sight 
of Martinsville, stood the Maryland and Virginia Conti- 
nentals, under Huger and Williams'. 

The position selected by General Greene and the 
disposition of his men have always been approved by 
military men, with the exception of the fact that he 
placed raw recruits — men who had never smelt gunpow- 
der — men who had not been mustered into service 
two weeks, in the front line to bear the brunt of the first 
onset of veteran troops. 

Greene's Army consisted of Huger's Brigade of Vir- 
ginia Continentals, 778; Williams' Maryland and Delaware 
Brigade, 630; Lee's Legion, 82; Continental Regulars. 
1,490; North Carolina Militia, r,o6o; Virginia Militia, 
1,693; Washington's Dragoons, 86; Lee's Dragoons, 75; 
and 161 Cavalry; in all 4,243 men. 

The British forces consisted of the German Regiment; 
the Seventy-First or Frazer Highlanders; Thirty-Third 
Regiment; Second Battalion of Guards, and German 
Yagers and Cavalry; in all about 2,500 men. 

It forms no part of my design to attempt a description 
of the feats of valor performed on this memorable battle 


field, where both CornwalHs and Greene gathered fresh 
laurels; where the fiery Tarleton and the brave Webster 
found foemen worthy of their steel in the daring Lee and 
gallant Colonel Washington. But, standing in the edge 
of the forest, where the raw recruits, the North Carolina 
Militia, stood on that eventful day, I could not help 
feeling that Greene gathered his laurels at the expense 
of the valor and fame of the sons of the Old North 

To plant untrained soldiers in a position where they 
could have a full view, for at least a mile, of the 
advancing army as it approached in "all the pomp and 
circumstance of glorious war," whilst ^^they had to remain 
impassive, immovable lookers on, without the power to 
do aught to stir the blood and make it course freely 
through their arteries and hearts, and move them on to 
valiant deeds, was demanding more from human nature 
than most Generals would have required. 

The Americans knew the reputation and fame of the 
troops that were slowly and determinedly approaching 
their lines. They knew, for instance, the fame of the 
Seventy-First or Frazer Highlanders, a Regiment that 
had distinguished itself at Louisburg in the French war — 
a Regiment of which General VVolfe had said, "Amherst's 
and the Highlanders alone, by the soldierlike and cool 
manner they were formed in, would undoubtedly have 
beaten back the whole Canadian Army, if they had 
ventured to attack them, and who, in company with the 
Welsh Fusiliers, were the first to scale the heights of 
Abraham, under the eye of the intrepid Wolfe, made a 
charge that defeated Montcalm, and gained for the Regi- 
ment a world-wide fame." 

The same Regiment did signal execution at the battle 
of Trenton and attracted the notice of General Wash- 
ino-ton. On one occasion, when Lieutenant-Colonel 


Maitland, of the Seventy-First, was in company ^vit^^ 
General Washington, he jocularly told him, that, to 
enable him to distinguish and do justice to the valor of 
this corps, his men would in future wear a red feather in 
their bonnets, which they continued to do till the conclu- 
sion of the war. 

At the battle of Camden, the Seventy-First and Welsh 
Fusiliers made that terrible charge which broke the 
center of General Gates' Army, resulting in his defeat; 
and they signalized themselves in the neighborhood of 
Savannah, and had pursued General Greene across the 
Catawba, Yadkin and Dan rivers, anxious to bring 
him to a pitched battle. Such was now^ about to take 

In this Regiment alone, which advanced upon the North 
Carolina Militia, five of the officers lived to attain the 
rank of Fieutenant-General in the British service; one a 
General; two Colonels; three Lieutenant-Colonels, and 
some Majors. This is strong evidence of the mettle 
against which the Militia had to contend. 

And yet this same Regiment, when under the cominand 
of Tarleton, at the battle of the Cowpens, after having 
broke through the center, and, when left unsupported, 
and pressed on all sides, did what Stewart says no other 
Highland Regiment ever did. "run from an enemy." 
Ramsey casts the blame on Tarleton, and Stewart says 
the officers and men petitioned Cornwallis never to 
suffer Tarleton to command them again, which he prom- 
ised, and in the battle of Guilford they were led by 
General Leslie. 

I have been led to this digression because it seems 
fashionable for all our modern authors, following in the 
wake of Johnson, in his life of Greene, to speak of the 
''coivardlv North Caroli)ia Militia,'' and assign theij. 
conduct as the cause of Greene's defeat. Even m}- 


distinguished friend, Dr. Caruthers, in his life of Caldwelf, 
I am sorry to say, chimes in with this sentiment, when at 
the same time his book contains evidence that the North 
Carolina Militia obeyed instructions by firing "twice and 

This view of the case is stt-engthened by a letter 
from Captain Dugald Stewart, of the Seventy- First 
Regiment, dated, Ballachelish, Argyleshire, Scotland, 
October 25th, 1825, where he says: 

"In the advance, we received a very deadl}' fire fron^i 
their marksmen lying on tJie ground behind a rail fence. 
One-half of the Highlanders dropped on iJiat spot. 
There ought to be a pretty large tumulus where our men 
(Seventy-First) were buried." See Caruthers' Life of 
Caldwell, page 227. 

And the same author, page 226, says: "It is also 
known that a great man}' of the British were buried in 
that field, and near the place where their front li le teas 
when tlie first fire zcas given. Of this there is no doubt, 
for it is well attested by people in the neighborhood who 
were on the ground the next day after the battle, and 
saw them burying their dead.'' 

Again, Brown, in his "History of the Highland Clans," 
speaking in reference to the Seventy-First Regiment at 
Guilford, says: "The Americans, covered by the fence 
in their front, reserved their fire till the British xvere 
witJiin thirty or forty paees, at zvhich distance they 
opened a most destructive fire, luhich annihilated nearly 
one-third of Colonel Webster s Brigade." 

The Seventy-First Regiment formed the right of the 
British Army, and Webster's Brigade, the left. 

The North Carolina Militia alone formed the front line 
of the American Army. They alone met the British 
Veterans flushed with previous victories; annihilated 
one-third of Webster's Brigade, and one-half of the 

Seventy- First or Frazer Highlanders; and yet their 
memories are held up to execration as disgraced cowards 
by Lossing and Johnson, and, what is more unkind still, 
by the historians of our own State. 

Standing here, where the defenders of the State — I may 
add, the defenders of the entire Southern States — stood, 
impartially reviewing their conduct on that eventful day, 
in the light of the circumstances suggested, the wonder 
to my mind is, that they did so much, rather than they 
did not do more. 

They had been taken from their fields and firesides 
within the week. They had no distinguished North 
Carolinian at their head, whom they could implicitly 
obey or follow. Neither Graham, Davidson nor Davie 
were present. Ramsey says the front line gave way — 
not that it ran away. The very design of the battle 
shows they were to give way. They were not expected 
to fight the entire battle. The residue of the troops was 
intended to have some share in deciding the fate of the 
day. Ramsey blames the imprudence of a Colonel, for 
the front line giving way, "who called out to an officer, 
at some distance, that he would be surrounded," and 
remarks, "that as one good officer can mend the face of 
affairs, so the misconduct of a bad one may injure a whole 
army." And yet the remark of the Colonel was not 
without cause, for both Webster and Tarleton were exert- 
ing themselves to outflank and surround the Americans, 
and, according to Marshall, in his Life of Washington, 
they were successful. 

Having viewed the ground where the great shock of 
the contending armies was felt, we turned our faces 
towards Martinsville. On the way Dr. Caruthers pointed 
out, in the forests of oaks, trees with which are associated 
the names and deeds of resolute and heroic men. On 
emerging from the woods, we caught a view of the site 


o{ the old Court House. On the Northivcsf side of the 
road, on the hillside, the British sleep the sleep of deaths 
On the Southeast quietly repose the American dead. 0\'er 
their remains stand a {t\v majestic oaks, whose wide- 
spreading branches and heavy foHage attest alike their 
vigor and their age. Close by can be seen the trunks of 
stalwart trees, which returning Spring has ceased to reno- 
vate with strength and vigor. But they }'et linger on, 
blighted though they be, and serve to point strangers to 
where the thickest of the Hght took place, where the last 
stand was made in behalf of North Carolina's altars and 
fires, by those brave men whose names can never die. 
On the opposite side of the road can be seen the willows 
emerging above the rank undergrowth near the little 
stream that murmurs down the vale, clear and limpid as 
if its color never had been darkened by the blood of man. 

The loss of the British in the battle of Guilford Court 
House was 600; American loss, 372. 

And though che British kept the field, yet such was 
the crippled condition of Cornwallis, that he immediately 
retreated to Cross Creek and Wilmington, at which latter 
place Major Craig was in command. 

The consequences of this battle in behalf of American 
liberty have always ranked high. Marshall says that 
previous to the return of Greene from Virginia to North 
Carolina, as many as seven companies were raised by the 
British in one day; and already the Royalists began to 
embody themselves on Haw river in numbers. 

The battle of Guilford checked the rising spirit in 
behalf of the mother countr>'. It was the first decided 
check Cornwallis had had since he took command of the 
Southern Army. Charleston and Savannah had suc- 
cumbed before him. Georgia and South Carolina were 
invested with the British under Rawdon. Arnold was in 
full force in Virginia; and it but needed success to crown 


the arms of .Cornwallis in North Carolina, to make them 
feel that the British Lion was all-powerful at the South, 
as he had been at the North on the termination of the 
campaign of 1780. 

The battle of Cxuilford secured a reaction. Soon Raw- 
don was defeated at the South, and Clinton at the North; 
and in six months after the nominal victory of Cornwallis 
at Guilford Court House, he surrendered his whole army 
to General Washington at Yorktown, which surrender 
led to a permanent and lasting peace. 

In writing this letter I have not had an opportunity of 
referring to either of the standard British Historians of 
the American War. I mean Stedman, Tarleton, or 
McKenzie's Strictures. But from my recollection of 
them, I feel assured they do not contradict Stewart or 
Brown. And when, upon the battle field, I was informed 
that the Historian Bancroft had very recently surveyed 
it in company with Governor Swain, I regretted I had 
not been present; but felt reconciled when I remembered 
that Governor Swain was there, able and willing to point 
out where half of the Seventy-First fell, and the opposite 
field where one-third of Webster's Brigade fell, beneath 
the rifle of the hitherto much traduced North Carolina 

While traversing the ground to obtain a correct idea 
of the locality where Washington made his awful charge, 
and where Gunby repelled the daring Webster, where 
Tarleton endeavored to turn the American lines, the 
positions occupied by the two commanding Generals and 
the point at which each General was nearly captured, I 
thought of the dead, the brave dead, who slept beneath 
the battle field their valor had immortalized, and then of 
the lonely grave of the lamented Colonel Webster, who 
lies in a cluster of pines, on the Bellfont estate, in Bladen 
County, sympathy overcame the ardor with which I 

I 10 

commenced the search, and I felt a melancholy pleasure 
in watching- the thickening of the gathering gloomy 
clouds that hung o'er the battle field, and I turned away 
with feelings that acutely sympathized with the solemn 
gloom and grandeur of a sunless sky, on a bleak and 
damp November day. 

So ends my trip to Greensboro, but so cannot end the 
pleasant ideas and impressions, now forever associated 
and connected with her g"enerous citizens and beautiful 
town — ideas penned while there, but which, owing to the 
detention of my baggage in Raleigh, have never in their 
original form come into your hands. 

James Banks. 

sketch of james banks. 

North Carolina Supreme Court, 
Raleigh, N. C, November 6th, 1893. 

J/j' Dear Judge Sckeiick: 

I have just received yours of the 4th. I remember 
Jimmie Banks very well. He was a low land Scotchman, 
as we used to distinguish them from the highlanders, 
from whom most of us in Cumberland came. He came 
to Fayetteville when quite young and lived with his 
uncle, old Mr. Davie Shaw, who had a bakery and candy 
store, and who made what now seems to me to have been 
the best candy in the world. 

Jimmie Banks studied law and built up quite a large 
practice in Cumberland and Robeson, and, probably, 
would have made a good living out of the profession, but I 
think he endeavored to supplement his fees by going into 

1 1 1 

the steamboat business in company with others, and in 
this he was unfortunate, and he moved away to Florida, 
where, not many years ago, he died. He was a genial 
companion, a dear lover of Burns. Spoke with the 
broad Scotch accent you meet with so often in Scott and 
Burns, and while he was a ruling elder, I think — at least 
a member of the "Church of the Covenant" — still he was 
"na sae unco' guid" but that he would enjoy a little 
conviviality with a friend on occasion. 

He was quite literary in his tastes and indeed a pleasant 
writer. He wrote an interesting sketch of Flora 
McDonald, contributed freely to the newspapers, espe- 
cially to the Fayetteville Observer, in which was the 
article to which you refer. If he had done nothing else 
but write it and so communicate to you, even as second 
hand, the inspiration which has led you to see justice 
done to the North Carolina Militia at Guilford, he has 
done well. 

I wish I could tell you more about him. He was 
gentle and kind, loved good company, a song or a story, 
and he was an ardent Whig. If you would like to know 
more of him, I will write my friend, Dr. W. C. McDuffie, 
of Fayetteville, and I think he would give us a sketch of 
Mr. Banks. He was a type of man the like of whom we 
do not see now, down about home, but he has left many 
fragrant memories, and did leave many friends when he 
went away. Alas! They have nearly all gone too. 
With my kind regards, 

Yours most truly, 

Jas. C. McRae. 

I 12 




Brigadier-General Jethro Sumner, of the American 
Continental Army, born in Isle of Wight County, in 
Virginia, in 1733, was grandson of a planter, William 
Sumner, who settled one mile from Suffolk, in 1691. His 
father, Jethro, was a vestryman of the Church of England 
along with Andrew Meade, father of Richard Kidder 
Meade, one of Washington's Aides-de-Camp and grand- 
father of Bishop William Meade. 

Jethro Sumner, the younger, was appointed a Lieuten- 
ant in a Virginia Regiment in 1758 to serve against the 
French and Indians. He was with Washington when 
Fort Du Quesne was captured. He was promoted to a 
Captaincy during the war. 

Captain Sumner, soon after the Peace of Paris, 1763, 
removed to Bute Court House, about six miles from 
Warrenton, in North Carolina, where he bought a planta- 
tion. From the fact that he owned the tavern at Bute 
Court House, some writers say that tavern-keeping was 
his occupation, but this is not true. He was Sheriff of 
the County in 1772 and afterwards. 

The Sumner family were ardent Patriots in the Revo- 
lutionary struggle. Luke Sumner, of Chowan, David 
and James Sumner, of Halifax, and Robert Sumner, of 
Hertford, all cousins of Captain Jethro Sumner, were 
prominent as civil or military officers during the 

Captain Sumner was member of the Congress at 
Hillsboro in 1775. He was appointed by that body 




Major of the Minute Men of Halifax, and was ordered to 
the defense of Norfolk. General Robert Howe was 
emphatic in his praises of the behavior of the North 
Carolina troops. In April, 1776, Major Sumner was pro- 
moted to the Colonelcy of the Third Re<,nment of the 
North Carolina Continental troops. 

Colonel Sumner probably participated in the brilliant 
defense of Charleston. June 28th, 1776, as he and his 
Regiment were certainly soon afterwards in the abortive 
expedition of General Charles Lee for the attack of St. 

In March, 1777, Colonel Sumner marched North to 
join Washington, fought gallantly at Brandywine, Ger- 
mantown and Monmouth. 

On January 9th, 1779, he was promoted to be Brigadier- 
General. He was then sent South, and distinguished 
himself at Stono Ferry. He escaped being captured at 
Charleston, in May, 1780, by being detached to North 
Carolina for the purpose of raising recruits. With his 
new levies he made such a brilliant charge at Eutaw 
Springs as to win from General Greene the commenda- 
tion: "The North Carolina Brigade under Sumner were 
ordered to support them, and, though not above three 
months' men, behaved nobly. I was at a loss which 
most to admire, the gallantry of the officers or the good 
conduct of the men." 

Captain Smyth, of the British Army, in Smyth's Tour, 
speaks of his "having distinguished himself in the course 
of the late war, being the General Sumner of the 
American Army, who has been so active in the Caro- 

After peace he returned to the management of his 
large possessions. He was President of the North 
Carolina Division of the Society of the Cincinnati, 
presiding over it May 13th, 1784. 


He died March iSth, 1785, leaving two sons, Thomas 
Edward and McKinney Hurst, and a daughter, Jacky 
SulHvan, named after the most worthy General John 
Sullivan. Thomas Sumner represented Warren County 
in the General Assembly in 1800, and removed to 
Tennessee. Both he and McKinney died without issue. 
Their sister changed her name to Mary Sumner and 
married Thomas Blount, afterwards a member of Con- 
gress. She survived him, and, having no children, 
scattered her large estate among sixty legatees, among 
them Christ (Episcopal) Church, in Raleigh. 

Although General Sumner has no lineal descendants 
there are numbers of his collateral relations in North 
Carolina. The late Thomas J. Sumner, of Salisbury, 
was one of them. 

General Sumner was buried at Bute Court House, his 
daughter erecting over his grave a monument like that of 
her husband in the Congressional Burying Ground at Wash- 
ington City, on which is the inscription, "Gen. Jethro 
Sumner, one of the Heroes of '76." Finding that the 
grave was totally uncared for, the President of the Guil- 
ford Battle Ground Company, Ex-Judge David Schenck, 
procured an appropriation of fifty dollars from the General 
Assembly, and caused the remains, together with the 
stone, to be removed to its present conspicuous site in 
the Battle Ground Park. 

Sumner was not a military genius, but he was an 
exceedingly useful officer, strong minded, brave, ener- 
getic, careful of the comfort of his soldiers in camp and 
on the march, spurring them to brave deeds in the battle. 
He had the confidence of Washington and Greene, 
La Fayette and Steuben, and other leaders, and justly 
so, because with honest heart and dauntless pluck he 
was faithful to every duty. 

While the memory of his great services and sacrifices 



was fresh, the General Assembly of North Carolina in 1787 
gave the name of Sumner to a County cut from that which 
perpetuates the heroism of General William Davidson. 
These counties are now in that part of North Carolina 
ceded to Tennessee. 


William R. Davie was born at Egremont, near White- 
haven, Cumberland County, in the North of England, on 
June 20th, 1756. He was brought to this country by his 
father in 1763, and left in care of his maternal uncle. Rev. 
William Richardson, a noted Presbyterian minister, 
residing at the Waxhaws, in South Carolina. He made 
young Davie his heir, educated him at Queen's Museum, 
in Charlotte, and at Princeton College, New Jersey, and 
left him his estate. In 1776 Davie joined a company 
raised among the Princeton students, and saw service in 
the memorable campaign in the Jerseys. In 1777 he 
returned home to study law, but joined a command 
raised for the defense of Charleston. This was, however, 
disbanded on reaching Camden. 

In 1779 he aided in raising a cavalry command, and 
was wounded in the battle of Stono, near Charleston, 
on June 20th. In 17:0 he raised another command, 
expending his entire estate in so doing. He met with 
signal success in the attack upon Hanging Rock in July, 
and again in August, in which last expedition Andrew 
Jackson, then a boy, served as his guide. 

After the disaster of Camden, Davie's command for 
many weeks was the only organized opposition to the 
enemy's advance. In September he gained a considerable 
advantage over the enemy at Wahab's plantation, and a 
few days later achieved one of the most brilliant events 
of the whole war, the ever-memorable defense of Charlotte 


with a handful of men against the adv^ance of the whole 
British Army. 

When General Greene took command of the Army, at 
his request Colonel Davie, with rare self denial, gave up 
his brilliant career as a cavalry leader and assumed 
the duties of Quarter Master General. As such he was 
with the Army at Guilford Court House and the seige of 

After the war was over he began the practice of law at 
Halifax, North Carolina, and soon acquired a leading 
practice in the State. He married the daughter of 
General Allen Jones and niece of Willie Jones. 

He was one of the delegates of this State to the 
Convention of 1787, at Philadelphia, which framed the 
Constitution of the United States. The vote of North 
Carolina secured equal representation in the Senate, 
without which the smaller States would have withdrawn 
from the Convention. The concession of this point by 
the North Carolina delegation was due to Colonel Davie. 
But for his exertions the Constitution would at that time 
have failed. He was subsequently an earnest advocate 
of the adoption of the Federal Constitution by this State, 
and was tendered the appointment of United States 
District Judge by President Washington, but declined it. 

By his influence and eloquence in the General Assembly 
he procured the Charter and appropriation for the State 
University, and always continued its firm friend. 

On the threatened outbreak of war with France, in 
1797, he was appointed Brigadier-General by President 

He helped to organize the Grand Lodge of Masons in 
North Carolina, and for seven years, 1792- 1798, he was 
its Grand Master. In the latter year he was elected 
Governor. In 1799. while still holding that office, he 
was appointed with Chief Justice Ellsworth and Mr. 

(the NEW YORK 



Col. Julius A. Gray. 

Late:Vice-Presicleiit of The G. B. G. Conipauy. 


Murray as an Embassy to France. There they negotiated 
with Talleyrand and Napoleon (then First Consul) a 
Treaty of Peace. In 1805, his wife having died, he 
removed to his estate at Tivoli, near Landsford. in South 
Carolina, just across the Mecklenburg line. In 1813 he 
was appointed a Major-General in the United States 
Army by President Madison, but declined it. He died 
at Tivoli, November i8th, 1820, in the sixty-fifth year of 
his age. 

He was one of the best swordsmen in the Army, a 
magnetic orator, an accurate lawyer. Handsome in 
presence, brave in action, polished in manner, eloquent 
in speech, he was a favorite of fortune. 

Justly does his epitaph style him, 'A great man in an 
age of great men." As a soldier he held Tarleton and 
Cornwallis at bay, as a lawyer he found no superior at 
the bar, and as a diplomat Talleyrand obtained no 
advantage over him. In personal intercourse he obtained 
the esteem and friendship of Washington, Jefferson, 
Napoleon and Andrew Jackson. A life whose circum- 
ference touched these points could fill no small space in 
the public eye. North Carolina enrolls him as one of 
her noblest and most faithful sons. 

Walter Clark. 


This estimable gentleman was born in Randolph 
County on the 6th day of September 1833, and in 1858 
was married to fLmma V. Morehead, daughter of Hon. 
John M. Morehead, the distinguished Governor of the 
State. He died the 14th day of April, 1891. 

At his death he was the Vice-President of the Guilford 


Battle Ground Company. He was also President of the 
Cape Fear and Yadkin Valley Railroad Company, whose 
track divides the battle field into two almost equal 

This Railroad Company from the beginning has trans- 
ported all material for the Battle Ground Company free, 
and given to it liberal shares of its passenger profits on 
Celebration Days, thereby rendering to the enterprise 
more substantial assistance, by far, than that from any 
other source. 

Colonel Gray was most liberal personally and never 
faltered in his devotion to the Company's interest. The 
great esteem in which he was held is expressed in the 
following resolutions of respect which were adopted by 
the Company. 

There were few dry eyes when they were read. 

At a meeting of the Directors of the Guilford Battle 
Ground Company held in Greensboro, North Carolina, 
April 24th, 1 891, the following resolutions of respect 
were offered by the President of the Company and unani- 
mously adopted: 

Whereas, We have heard with unfeigned grief of the untimely 
death of our First Vice-President, CoLONEL JULIUS A. Gray, of 
Greensboro, North Carolina, on the 14th day of April, 1891, and 

Whereas, We have suffered an irreparable loss and desire to 
bear our testimony to the great worth of the deceased as a man 
and his steadfast and earnest devotion to every public duty; 

Resolved, ist, That this Company had no truer, more devoted 
or more liberal friend than Vice-President Gray. He was one of 
the original corporators and projectors of our patriotic enterprise, 
and from the incipiency of the work to the day of his death he was 
ever ready to lend a liberal hand and encouraging word to every 
effort made to promote the interest and success of the Company. 
Indeed it is not too much to say that without his generous aid 
we could hardly have hoped to succeed. 

Lkonidas \V. Springs, Esq. 

liberal Eeuefactor of The G. B. G. Compaiij-. 





He was present at all our annual meetings, making wise and 
practical suggestions and renewing his professions of attachment 
to the Company. 

At our last annual meeting, at the Battle Grounn, Colonel Gray 
was inexpressibly sad, and the hearts of all of us went out in tender 
sympathy for him as we observ^ed that approaching death had 
already set his withering seal upon his manly brow and "markeil 
him for his own " The inevitable could not be concealed. He 
made but one remark characteristic of his modesty and generosity. 
When it was sugested that a certain person could aid us as Vice- 
President, he at once proposed to retire himself and let this gen- 
tleman have his place. The bare proposition met an emphatic No! 
from every Director present. 

But a few hours before he was compelled by feebleness to take 
his deathbed, he expressed his deep interest in the work of the 
Company and advised that certain things be done to promote its 

Colonel Gray, in the numerous relations which he bore to the pub- 
lic, was pre-eminently successful and his power and influence was 
felt in every association in which he was thrown. He was a ruling 
spirit among men, and yet so mildly and gently was that influence 
wielded that it was almost imperceptible in its exercise and was 
ov\\y felt when the result was attained. 

It is difficult to foresee how such a public loss can be supplied bv 
another, and the Providence that called him hence is inscrutable 
to us all. The State, the County, the City, the corporations to 
which he belonged, may well be grieved and mourn his untimely 

In social life Colonel Gray was so amiable, so frank and so 
sincere and earnest that he won the affection of his friends and 
even envy was disarmed of its shafts when it looked upon him. 
To the stranger he was generous, just and true, and was ready to 
extend not only sympathy and courtesy, but to take him by the 
hand and befriend him in adversity or trouble. 

There was scarcely an attribute of noble manhood that did not 
find its development in his character and stand out in beauty antl 
attractiveness to all who saw or took knowledge of him. 
"His life was ge7itle; and the elements 
So mixed in him that Nature might stand up 
And say to all the world, 'This was a man.' " 


Resolved, 2nd, That this heartfelt and sincere tribute of affection 
to our departed friend be spread upon the records of our Company 
and that a page, with the insignia of mourning around it, be set 
apart for that purpose. 

Resolved, jrd. That a copy of these resolutions be furnished to 
the family of the lamented deceased with the hope that it shall not 
be considered obtrusive for us to mingle our tears with theirs on 
this mournful occasion. 

David Schexck, President. 
Thomas B. Keogh, Secretary. 


This venerable octogenarian, whose attractive picture 
adorns this volume, was born in Lexington, Virginia, on 
the 22d day of March, 1812, and removed to Greensboro 
on May the 28th, 1827, where he has resided and done 
business ever since. Married to Sarah I. Paisely, whose 
ancestors were ardent Whigs in the Revolution, he has 
reared a respectable family who have inherited their 

Mr. Sloan is a patriot, with all the lofty sentiment 
which that word implies. 

He is a Christian "in whom there is no guile," exem- 
plary in all the walks of life, he is respected, honored, 
venerated and loved by all who know him. 

Cordial, companionable and courteous in social life, he 
is receiving the just reward of a peaceful and happy old 
age, with few of its infirmities of body or mind. 

Such a character could not fail to become a stockholder 
in the Guilford Battle Ground Company, to which he has 
contributed with such generous liberality. 

illil '^^g^ 

The Venerable Robert M. Si,oan. 





His ardent nature kindles to enthusiasm in the patriotic 
work of his Company, his means, his influence and his 
example are all given to the good work. 


This gentleman resides in Cherokee County, North 
Carolina, but his patriotism was broad enough to reach 
the Guilford Battle Ground. 

He responded promptly and liberally to the first call 
for aid to the Guilford Battle Ground Company and 
became one of its earliest stockholders. His constant 
liberality and interest in its affairs have given him promi- 
nence among its members. 

Captain Cooper was a gallant soldier himself and was 
naturally in sympathy with any movement to do honor 
to the memory of those who fought to obtain our 

He has represented his county in both branches of the 
Legislature and the State Convention, and in each has 
proven himself to be worthy of the high honor conferred 
on him. He has been a successful lawyer and, what is 
rare in that profession, has accumulated a handsome 


Mr. Wittkowsky was born near Posen, Prussia, of 
respectable parentage, May 29th, 1833. At the early age 
of eighteen he came to New York to seek his fortune, 
landing with one gold dollar and "without friend or 


He IS now the affluent President of the "Loan St Sa\^- 
ings Bank," Charlotte, N. C. 

This bespeaks the man. 

His wonderful success as a merchant and financier and 
his high social standing are due to his stern, unbending: 
integrity, his indomitable will and his patient untiring 

He is of Polish extraction and naturally imbued with 
a love of liberty. 

This led him to become one of the first stockholders in 
the Guilford Battle Ground Company, to which he has 
contributed time and money. 

He is now one of its most prominent and honored 
Directors and ever ready to work and to give when 
necessary to promote its interest. 

The Company has no more faithful friend and the 
State no better citizen than Samuel Wittkowsky. 


Professor of the "History and Philosophy of Education," 
at the University of North Carolina, is one of the most 
prominent gentlemen in the literary circles of North 
Carolina, who has devoted his splendid talents and 
indomitable energies to the development and progress 
of education in his native State, and to-day writes and 
speaks the P^nglish language with a beauty unexcelled 
by any of his cotemporaries. He is an orator born and 
cultivated. His addresses, historical and literary, are 
chaste, charming and impressive. He never lacks an 
audience where he is known and never fails to edify and 
delight his hearers. His address at the Battle Ground 
in October, 1 892, on the reception of the Maryland 



Mr. J. W. Fry. 

Vice-President G. B. G. Company. 


^Monument, was a masterpiece of rhetoric and was 
delivered with all the magnetic enthusiasm which char- 
acterizes this splendid North Carolinian. Wilmington 
may well be proud that she gave him birth. He was 
born there May. the 15th, 1861; was graduated at the 
University of North Carolina in 1882^ was for a year 
Professor of History in the State Normal School, at 
Greensboro, North Carolina, but was soon promoted to a 
•chair at the University. 

His intellectual capacity, his ambition, his love for his 
State and his devotion to her interests, mark him as one 
•of the coming men in this generation. 


General Manager of the Cape Fear and Yadkin Valley 
Railroad Company and Vice-President of the Guilford 
Battle Ground Company, is a Virginian by birth, born in 
Richmond, June the 13th, 1854, son of John J. and Mary 
C. Lewis Fry. He was educated at Norwood College, 
giving special attention to mathematics and civil 
engineering. He began railroad life as a rodman, and 
such was 4iis genius and fidelity to duty that he rose 
rapidly in his chosen and favorite profession. 

He was for a time in the service of the Chesapeake 
and Ohio road, then with the Richmond and Danville 
Railroad Company, as Chief Engineer and Superintendent 
of several roads. In August, 1886, he was elected 
General Manager of the Cape Fear and Yadkin Valley 
Railroad, which honorable and responsible position he 
still holds. 

Mr. Fry is one of the youngest General Managers in 
the nation. His distinguishing traits of character are 


arrswerving' integrity, conscientious fidelity to duty, 
energy and patience. 

He never falters in the prosecution of business and 
never neglects a detail necessary to its successful 
accomplishment. His urbanity, his courteous dignity 
and his great kindness of heart endear him to his friends; 
and family. 

He was married in February, i^i, to Annie M. Gray, 
daughter of the late lamented Colonel Julius A. Gray. 

Mr. Fry has been the steadfast and liberal friend of 
the Guilford Battle Ground Company ever since he came 
to Greensboro, in 1886, and is still enthusiastic in his 
efforts to build up and beautify the grounds. His sub- 
stantial friendship soon caused the Company, at the death 
of Colonel Gray, to make him its First Vice-President. 


of Charlotte, North Carolina, was among the very first 
persons in the State to respond to the call for the organi- 
zation of the Guilford Battle Ground Company and he 
has since its organization doubled his stock and given 
freely to every effort to promote its interest. Our space 
does not allow us to give as extended a notice of this 
distinguished citizen as we would be pleased to do. 

We feel a pride in numbering him among the stock- 
holders of the Company. 

General Barringer was born December 2nd, 1821, in 
Cabarrus County, and was educated at Sugar Creek 
Academy and the University of North Carolina. He is 
a lawyer by profession. 

He gained celebrity during the late war of the States 
as a Brigadier-General of Cavalry. He was not only a 




^^^^i-^'^Iy-i^'T.^n^, . 

^ • ^^-^« ^. ^ c^^ ■ 




' 1.4 


cliivalrous and dashing officer but possessed of military 
genius of a high order. He was entrusted with most im- 
portant movements requiring skill, alertness and courage, 
and it is said, for his fame, that he never disappointed his 
superior officers. He was also noted for his wonderful 
care of his men and his devotion to their comfort and 
discipline. All these qualities gave him prominence in 
that great struggle, and in peace he has received the 
respect and admiration of the country. 

It is, therefore with much pleasure that we reproduce 
here a copy of a letter from the General to the President 
of the Guilford Battle Ground Company in regard to the 
battle of Guilford Court House. The letter is as follows: 

Charlotte, N. C, May 6, 1891. 
My Dear Judge: 

Since my return from the Guilford Battle Ground, I 
have carefully compared all accessible authorities in the 
light of my own observations on the field itself, as so 
well marked off by you, and I reach this conclusion: 

No military man can look upon the "plan of battle," 
as designed by General Greene, and fail to see, as a part 
of that plan, that the "first line." composed largely of 
raw North Carolina Militia, ivas to simply fire and fall 
back, under the cover afforded. This is always a danger- 
ous experiment; but it had great success at Cowpens, 
under Morgan, only a few weeks before, and was a 
plausible idea for the ground at Guilford. Not to retire 
would prove a mockery of all strategic skill, and end in 
a cruel sacrifice of blood. 

I think you are doing a good work for the State, and 
enclose a check for $25 for an additional share of the 
Company's stock. The Guilford Battle Field was a true 
"turning point in the War of the Revolution," and you 


have made it an object lesson which all might study for 
historic research and artistic taste and culture. 

I only regret I was not able to visit the spot before^ 
and will try to attend your grand 4th of July celebra- 
tion. Truly Yours, 

RuFus Barringer. 


of Greensboro, North Carolina, author of the beautiful' 
poem published in this volume, is a lady of culture and 
refinement, and is inspired with true poetical genius. 

A number of her poems have found their way to the 
public through the press and are always read with 
pleasure and admiration. It is difficult to find a fault 
with her Battle Ground Poem and no one can read it 
without catching the patriotic and enthusiastic spirit of 
the gifted authoress. 

She is a V^irginian by birth, born in Richmond 
December 20th, 1830, and was married May the i8th, 
1847. to Dr. Richard T. Hundley, of Hanover County. 
She now resides in Greensboro, North Carolina, with her 
daughter, the widow of Colonel Charles- Shober, who 
was a gallant Confederate soldier. 



Comparison of Militia, Ac. --Historical Brevities. 


We publish below an extract from a letter written by 
Archibald MacLaine Hooper, in 1845, describing the 
charge of Webster's Brigade upon the First Maryland 
Regiment of Continental Troops, Colonel Gunby's Com- 
mand, at Guilford Court House, March the 15th, 1781. 
Gunby was wounded early in the action and John Eager 
Howard, Lieutenant-Colonel and subsequently Governor 
of Maryland, succeeded to the command. General 
William R. Davie, of North Carolina, the brilliant 
cavalry fighter, was then on General Greene's Staff as 
Commissary General, but was always in the thickest of 
the fight. We found this letter in the University 
Magazine, March, 1855, page 61: 

"It was at the Battle of Guilford. A Division of the 
British Regulars were advancing' with great impetuosity 
to attack a Regiment of the American Army, under 
Colonel Gunby. The Regiment was displayed in lines 
t/iree deep, in conformity with the principles of military 
science in that day. The treble ranks stood perfectly 
still — it might be with immovable fortitude — or, it might 
be, in despairing stupifaction, at the approaching onset, 
that seemed to menace them with terrible destruction. 
Not a man could be seen to move— not a leg, not an 
arm, not a head. The whole was, to the gazing eyes of 
anxious spectators, an inert mass, standing as if rooted 
to the ground. Davie was one of these spectators. He 
saw the hostile division dashing onward, as if to assured 


victory. His anxiety was wrought up to the highest 
pitch. Turning to the officer next to him, he exclaimed: 
'Great G — d! Is it possible that Colonel Gunby is going" 
to surrender himself and his whole regiment to the 
British arms.'*' At the appalling moment when he 
uttered this fearful interrogatory, the British Veterans 
were within thirty paces of their seemingly insensible 
victims. The words had scarely fallen from his lips, 
when a tall figure — it was Colonel Gunby himself — 
stepped out in front of the line and, in a stentorian voice, 
gave the order: 'Make ready! Take aim! Fire!' 
The last order was executed with dreadful precision. 
The foremost veterans were, in Davie's words, mowed 
down by it; the advancing lines were broken, and before 
they could recover from the sudden and unexpected 
check, the same voice was again heard in tones of 
thunder: 'Fix bayonets! Charge!' The Whig Regi- 
ment charged and recharged with prodigious fire and 
determination, and the onset, which a few minute.s 
before, menaced annihilation to everything in its course, 
was transformed into a disgraceful rout. An English 
prisoner, standing near to Davie, cried out: 'Is it 
possible that the King's troops are handled in this sort 
by a parcel of raw recruits.'"' 



It has been the custom of some shallow-brained histo- 
rians and "vain babblers" to compare, unfavorably to 
North Carolina, the more stubborn resistance of the Vir- 
ginia Brigade of Militia, under General Stevens, with the 
early flight of the North Carolinians, under General 


Butler, who was in their front and composed the left of 
the first line. 

In order that the utter fallacy of these assumptions of 
superiority on the part of the Virginia Militia may be 
dispelled, it is only necessary to revert to undisputed 
historical facts which every author who has written about 
this battle has stated: 

First. The Brigade of Butler consisted of only five 
hundred men, while the Brigade of Stevens numbered 
one thousand men, or double that of the North Caro- 

Second. The North Carolinians received the opening 
cannonade of twenty minutes which the Virginians 
escaped entirely. 

Third. The English troops who charged the North 
Carolina Militia consisted of the Scotch Highlanders, two 
hundred and twelve in number, and the Hessians, about 
three hundred and fifty, or an aggregate of five hundred 
and sixty-two men. Thus outnumbering the North 
Carolina Militia sixty-two men. I omit the estimate of 
Norton's First Battalion of Guards, because they were 
occupied by Campbell on the left flank. These five 
hundred and sixty-two (562) magnificent English troops 
were fresh and uncrippled when they made their onset 
on the North Carolinians. 

Fourth. Now let us see what was the number and 
strength of the force which attacked Steven's Virginia 

It was the Scotch Highlanders of two hundred and 
twelve men, less what they lost in the charge on the 
North Carolina Militia; for be it remembered that the 
Hessians were turned against Lee and Campbell and 
moved to the South as the fight progressed, instead of 
continuing East towards the Virginians. Let us now 


give the most liberal figures to the Virginia Militia and 
place the Highlanders at two hundred men and we have 
this result: 

Five hundred untutored North Carolina Militia opposed 
five hundred and sixty-two of the best troops in the 
world, the flower of the English Army, while the 
Virginians, one thousand strong, many of them veterans, 
who had returned when their enlistment under Washing- 
ton ended, fought only two hundred men. 

The North Carolinians were outnumbered by sixty-two 
men, while the Virginians outnumbered their foes five to 

Is it a matter of surprise that they succeeded, as the 
Rev. Mr. Houston says, in driving back the enemy three 

I venture to add another factor to this problem and to 
state that many of the North Carolina Militia, who 
retreated to the Virginia line, fought with it. Notably 
Forbis' men who, Lee says, did not flee, but fell back 
fighting stubbornly. 

On the North of the Salisbury road the showing in 
favor of the North Carolina Militia was much greater. 
Lawson's Virginia Brigade of Militia outnumbered Eaton's 
North Carolina Brigade two to one, one thousand to five 
hundred. Yet Lawson's flank was turned, as Mr. Houston 
describes, and they fled with scarcely any resistance, and 
with the loss of only one man, who was killed by some 
one in the hasty retreat ol those troops. 

Fifth. The Virginians fought a foe badly crippled by 
the fire of the North Carolinians, and to some extent 

Too much stress cannot be laid upon the statement of 
Captain Dugald Stuart, who commanded a Company of 
the Scotch Highlanders, and knew whereof he wrote. In 


a letter of his to a relative in Guilford County, North 
Carolina, dated October the 25th, I825, he says: 

"In the advance we received a deadly fire from the 
first line of the American Army, composed of their 
marksmen, lying- on the ground behind a rail fence. 
Onc-Jialf of the Hi^i^/ilaudej-s dropped on tJiat spot.'' 

If Captain Stuart be correct as to the loss of the 
Highlanders, who made the charge on the North Carolina 
Militia, there were not more than one hundred and six of 
them left instead of two hundred men. 

These reflections have occurred to me lately on hearing 
the vain boasting of some of our neighbors as to the 
comparative heroism of their troops which the truth does 
not support. 

January 1st, 1894. D. SCHEXCK. 


Cornwallis had three horses shot under him in the 
Battle of Guilford Court House. 

The first was a large iron grey. It was killed near the 
Ross residence. The Company owns the spot and has 
marked and enclosed it. 

The second was a dragoon's horse, improvised for the 
occasion. It was shot on the North of the present 
restaurant, and near the Battle Ground line, about two 
hundred yards North of the Salisbury road. 

The third was "Roundhead," a celebrated stallion 
which Tarleton had captured from Judge Moore's farm 
in Chatham. I have heretofore published an interesting- 
account of this horse. 


The Delaware troops, of the regular Continental Line, 
were reduced, by capture and killed and wounded at 
Gate's defeat, to ninety (90) men, and were under the 
command of the dashing and chivalrous Captain Kirk- 
wood. In this battle they were part of the "covering 
party" on the right flank of the first or North Carolina line. 
They encountered the determined charge of Colonel 
Webster's Thirty-Third British Regiment and fought 
them with stubborn resistance and success, falling back 
in regular line for half a mile and then rejoining the third 
or Continental Line. The work of this Spartan band is 
attested by their own and the enemy's dead which 
strewed the track of their conflict. Three graves of 
these brave Delawares were found a few years ago on the 
Northern limit of the battle field. Their buttons, with 
U. S. A. visible upon them, are still preserved, and a 
handsome granite boulder marks the spot. The remains, 
consisting of a few bones, were removed to a central part 
of the Battle Ground Park, and a lovely pink marble 
shaft is placed over them. 

All honor to the "Blue Hen's Chickens," who fought 
and died for liberty on this consecrated spot. 

Their State owes them a Monument worthy of their 
heroic deeds. 


now in the Guilford Battle Ground Museum, was found 
in 1856, at a celebration here, near the railroad crossing. 
It has stamped on it a lion conchant and the British Coat 
of Arms, and also a W engraved on it. 

Colonel Webster, of the British Army, fought over this 
part of the field and received a musket ball in his knee. 


from which he subsequently died. This is strong circum- 
stantial evidence of this being Colonel Webster's buckle, 
either shot off or removed in order to dress the wound. 

There is a splendid sword in the Guilford Battle 
Ground Museum of finest steel and encased in a German 
silver scabbard. The blade is beautifully chased, having 
the Coat of Arms of the Blantyre family of Scotland 
and various symbolical figures engraved upon it. It is 
undoubtedly the sword of Lieutenant-Colonel Stuart, of 
the Second British Guards, who was killed near the spot 
where it was exhumed. 

In 1866, eighty-five years after the battle, the hilt was 
found, protruding from a gully. It is the property of D. 
Schenck, President of the Guilford Battle Ground 

After the gallant Captain Forbis, of the North Carolina 
Line, was shot in the neck and leg, while fighting hand 
to hand with the British, he was left on the field to perish 
during the dreary and freezing night which followed the 

Next morning a person passing by was accosted by 
Forbis, who craved water. The person turning to him 
plunged a bayonet through his leg, accompanying the 
act with cursing and reproach. Captain Forbis lived 
long enough to tell the coward's name. Shoemaker, to 
his friends, and the vile tory was caught soon after by 
the Whigs and hanged to a limb near his own house. 


For fifty years after the battle, so numerous w ere the 
leaden balls on the field, that old persons inform me that 
the hunters came to the place and procured all the lead 
they needed. Since the organization of the Guilford 
Battle Ground Company, May the 6th, 1887, more than 
one hundred balls have been found, and one six-pound 
cannon ball dug up while setting out an apple tree near 
the Keeper's Lodge. 





of Lincoln County, a Whig patriot, was wounded in the 
arm, by a rifle ball, at the battle of King's Mountain. 
He was making his way home, after the battle, and 
stopped at the house of Captain George Sigman, a Whig, 
to rest. Sigman's daughter, Hannah, a blue-eyed blonde, 
ministered to him and dressed his wound. Wilfong 
lingered until admiration and gratitude ripened into love 
and an engagement (not military) was the result, but the 
young patriot, only eighteen years old, continued in the 
service of his country and passed unharmed through the 
bloody struggle at Eutaw Springs, South Carolina, 
September, 1781, which ended the Revolution in the 
South, and then returned to claim his bride. Mrs. D. 
Schenck, a great-granddaughter of Wilfong, related this 
story in 1893 to Mrs. Leonora Blandine Martin, the accom- 
plished wife of Mr. Harry C. Martin, of Greensboro, North 
Carolina, and she repeated the romance in the following 
beautiful poem. Lake Wilfong, in the Park of the 
Guilford Battle Ground, took its name from Mrs. 
Schenck's ancestor. 


Over the hills, when the day was done, 

Came a soldier young and bold, 
King's Mountain's battle was fought and won, 
Its heroes were crowned, by the setting sun, 
With laurel of heaven's own gold. 


Pale was his cheek, and his strong right hand 

Hung helpless at his side, 
While the buff and blue of the gallant band, 
Who fought for home and native land, 

Was stained with a crimson tide. 

Back went his thoughts, with a Patriot's pride, 

To McDowell tried and true. 
How Sevier had fought, and Chronicle died. 
Of Campbell, and Shelby's mountain ride, 

And to Hambright gave his due. 

Sore, weary and worn he passed along, 

With hunger and thirst opprest, 
'Though victory was sweet, and a Patriot's song 
Of hope, sung the heart of brave Wilfong, 

He was weary and longed for rest. 

Then he stayed his feet where a maiden fair 

At a farm house gateway leant. 
With the glint of gold in her shining hair, 
And a face like a flower— beyond compare- 
In its girlish sweet content. 

She prayed him rest, with a gentle charm, 

Brought water from the well, 
Though her bright cheek paled with quick alarm, 
With her kerchief she bound his bleeding arm, 

While her timid glances fell. 

Enrapt with the sound of his voice's spell, 

She heard of the carnage gory; 
How had bled Sevier and when Chronicle fell; 
While of gallant deeds did Wilfong tell. 

He began another story. 

'Twas the old, old story, but always new 

To the two who read its pages. 
Of a tender heart, and a heart that's true, 
Of a maiden fair, and a lover to woo, 

And it echoes through all the ages. 


This little American maiden shy 

Won a victory, too, that day. 
With the wondrous might of a woman's eye 
She conquered the conqueror. With not a sigh 

He bowed to her gentle sway. 

'Neath the great oak's shade, by the farm yard gate. 

Came the soldier oft with pride, 
For his wooing met with a gracious fate. 
His sweetheart loved with a love as great. 

And became his promised bride. 

But he left his love for his country's cause. 

This hero of other days, 
At Eutaw Springs, 'mid the alarm of wars, 
He risked his life, nor gave he pause 

'Till freedom's flag was raised. 

Then were wed Wilfong and the maiden true. 

And they proved in life the story, 
That the brave men are the tenderest too. 
For Wilfong knew both how to woo 

And how to whip a tory. 

'Tis no romance, but a story true. 

Told on Lake Wilfong's water, 
As we rowed along, on its dimpling blue. 
Which mirrored fair Guilford in Autumn hue, 

By W^ilfong's great-granddaughter. 




The General Assembly of North Carolina do Enact : 

Section i. That for the benevolent purpose of pre- 
serving and adorning the grounds on and over which the 
battle of "Guilford Court House" was fought on the 15th 
day of March, 1781, and the "erection thereon of monu- 
ments, tombstones, or other memorials to commemorate 
the heroic deeds of the American patriots who partici- 
pated in this battle for liberty and independence," it is. 
enacted that J. W. Scott, Thomas B. Keogh, Julius A. 
Gray, Dr. D. W. C. Benbow and David Schenck be and 
are hereby declared to be a private corporation, until 
their successors are elected, by the name of the 
"Guilford Battle Ground Company." 

Sec. 2. That the capital stock of saio company shall 
not e.xceed twenty-five thousand dollars, to be divided 
into shares of twenty-five (25) dollars each. That when 
ten shares or more of said capital stock are subscribed 
and ten per cent, thereof paid in, the stockholders may 
meet and elect not less than five nor more than nine 
directors of said company, by a majority vote of said 
stockholders, who shall succeed the persons herein before 
named as corporators, and this board of directors, so 
elected, shall elect one of their number President. The 
stockholders may also elect any other officers of the 
company they may deem proper and necessary. 

Sec. 3. The "Guilford Battle Ground Company" shall 
have power to contract and sue and be sued by its cor- 
porate name; may have a common seal and exercise all 
the ordinary and general powers of a private corporation 


of this kind. It shall have power to acquire by gift, 
grant, or purchase the title to all the lands on or over 
which the said battle of "Guilford Court House" was 
fought, or any part thereof or adjacent lands thereto not 
exceeding one hundred acres, or rights of way or other 
easements of land, or water necessary or convenient for 
the proper enjoyment of said land. It may erect houses 
thereon for use or ornament; erect monuments, tomb- 
stones or other memorials; may adorn the grounds and 
walks; supply the grounds with water; plant trees, 
flowers and shrubs thereon, and do any other like things 
for the improvement and beautifying of the property. 
It may allow the United States or any State or corpora- 
tion or individual to erect any monument, tombstone or 
other memorial, or any ornament or useful improvement 
thereon, to carry out the purposes of this act on such 
terms as may be agreed upon by the parties. It may 
receive gifts or aid from the United States, any State, 
corporation or individual, or agree with them to make 
any improvement thereon. Any city, town or other 
municipal corporation or an)' other corporation may 
subscribe to the capital stock of the said company, or 
make donations to the same; it may make all necessary 
by-laws, rules and regulations, not inconsistant with the 
constitution and laws of the State, for the proper care, 
protection and regulation of the property of the company- 
and the monuments, tombstones, memorials, houses and 
other property and ornaments and adornments thereon, 
or for the protection of the trees, flowers, shrubbery, 
walks, lawns, springs, wells or other like property- 
thereon. That the principal office of the company shall 
be in Greensboro, North Carolina. 

Sec. 4. It shall be a misdemeanor, punishable by fine 
and imprisonment, if any person or corporation shall 
wilfully destroy, demolish, deface or misuse any monu- 


mcnt, tombstone or other memorial, or ^ny fence, 
enclosure, tree, shrub, flower, spring, well, or any orna- 
ment or adornment placed upon the grounds, or any tree 
growing thereon, or shall wilfully deface, destroy or 
demolish any house, pavilion or like fixtures thereon, 
or shall wilfully trespass on the grounds after being 
notified not to do so, or shall wilfully obstruct the 
ways and walks of the compan}' leading to or over the 

Sec. 5. This act shall be in force from and after its 

Ratified the 7th day of March, A. D.. 1887. 

Lieut. Gov. Charles M. Stedman, 
The early friend of the Guilford Battle Ground Co. 


\ ^'-.t-vS-Ss. 




Hon. D. Schenck, 
Prest. G. B. G. Co., 

Col. Julius A. Gray, 

Dr. D. W. C. Benbovv, 

J. W. Scott, Esq.. 

Col. Thomas B. Keogh, 

Col. Fred. H. Stith, 

Hon. Charles Price, 

Maj. J. Turner Morehead, 

John A. Barringer, Esq., 

J. A. Odell, Esq., 

G. Will. Armfield, Esq., 
Mrs. Fannie Fishblate, 

G. D. Jordan, Esq., 

J. Van Lindley, Esq., 
Hon. Thomas Settle, Sr., 

U. S. Dist. Judge, 
R. R. King, Esq., 
Col. James T. Morehead, 
W. E. Bevill, Esq., 
W. D. McAdoo, Esq., 
Hon. John L. King, 

Prest. N. C. Senate, 
S. S. Brown, Esq., 
Samuel H. Wiley, Esq., 
Gen. Rufus Barringer, 
Col. A. S. Buford, 
Dr. Eugene Grissom, 
William Love, Esq., 
Hon. A. M. Scales. 
Ex-Go V. of N. C, 
Col. John D. Williams, 
Hon. Thomas C. Fuller, 
Judge U. S. Land Court, 

H. H. Cartland, Esq., 
Thomas Woodroffe, Esq., 
Albert A. Holton, Esq., 
W. R. Forbis, Esq., 
P. D. Price, Esq., 
A. Hagan & Son, 
D. N. Kii4tpatrick, Esq., 
C. P. Vkfx^Vovy, Esq., 
Maj. J. W.Fry, 

Gen. Man. C. F. & Y. V. R'y Co., 
Samuel Wittkowsky, Esq., 

Fr^M'.'L. & S. Bank, Charlotte, 
Hon. A. S. Merriman, 

Late Chief Justice of N. C, 
Col. Alfred Sully, 
Mrs. Phoebe G. Ross, 
Mr. William P. Clyde, 
J. R. Mendenhall, Esq., 
Hon. Charles M. Steadman, 

Ex-Lieut. -Gov. of N. C, 
Levi M. Scott Esq., 
Col. David Settle, 
Thomas McMahon, Esq., 
J. M. Odell, Esq., 
Hon. John A. Gilmer, 

Ex-Judge Superior Court, 
City of Greensboro, 
Lewis Fry, Esq., 
Mrs. R. R. King, 
P. H. Adams, Esq., 
G. S. Bradshaw, Esq., 
E. W. Wharton, Esq., 
Hon. Kemp P. Battle, 
Prof. History, University, N. C. 


Hon. J. W. Cooper, 
Mrs. A. L. Wright, 
West & Garrett, 
J. A. and M. H. Holt, 
Col. Frank Coxe, 
R. S. Tucker, Esq., 
W. L. Springs, Esq., 
James F. Yates, Esq., 
Hon. Z. B. Vance, 

U. S. Senator, 
David L. Clarke, Esq., 

James F. Jordan, Esq., 
T. C. Worth, Esq.. 
Hon. Thomas M. Holt. 

Ex-(iovernor of N. C, 
A. T. Robertson, Esq., 
Col. Robert M. Douglas, 
V. E. McBee, Jr., Esq., 
Col. James E. Boyd, 
Gen. H. V. Boynton, 
Hon. Kope Elias, 
W. M. Houston, Esq., 
J. L. Fonda, Esq., 
Robert M. Sloan, Esq., 
Tyre Glenn, Esq , 

Hon. Walter Clark, 

Asso. Justice N. C. .Supreme Ct. 
Hon. C. B. Watson, 
Henry Jerome Stockard, 

Joseph P. Caldwell, Esq., 

Editor Charlotte Observer. 
Dr. D. R. Schenck, 
D. Schenck. Jr.. Esq., 
Mrs. S. W. Schenck, 
Mrs. John L. Cobb, 
Lawrence S. Holt, Esq. 
Prof. O. W. Carr, 
W. P. Bynum. Jr., Escj., 
George Lampman, Esq., 
Dr. W. J. Norwood, 
Jjohn H. Inman, Esq.. 
"W*. B. Wills, Esq., 
Neil Ellington, Esq., 

Prest. Nat. Bank, Greensboro, 
Col. J. M. Winstead, 

Prest. Piedmont Bk,(ireensbor(), 
Dr. Charles M. Glenn, 
Prof. Ed. (jraham Daves, 
A. E. Alderman, Esq., 

Prof, in University of N. C, 




"Faf/i Maschi, Parole Feinine." 

At a meeting of the Maryland Historical Society, in 
Baltimore, on June Sth, 1891. Professor Edward Graham 
Daves offered a resolution: 

"That this Society inaugurate a movement to erect a 
Monument on the battle field of Guilford Court House^ 
commemorative of the heroic deeds of the Maryland 
Line on that historic spot." 

The motion was unanimously adopted and Professor 
Daves, General Bradley T. Johnson and W. Hall Harris 
were appointed a Committee to mature plans for this 
purpose. On November 9th the Committee made a report, 
recommending that the scene of the exploits of the Mary- 
land soldiers on Guilford battle field be marked by a Memo- 
rial Stone, with suitable inscriptions, and that the cost be. 
defrayed by voluntary subscription among the members 
of the Historical Society. The Committee was instructed 
to carry into effect this recommendation, and it decided 
that the Monument should consist of a rough cubic block 
of Maryland granite, adorned with two bronze tablets, the 
one to contain the Maryland Coat of Arms, and the 
other an inscription of dedication. 

The Guilford Battle Ground Company earnestly favoured 
the undertaking, and at its meeting on March 15th, 
1892, the I I ith anniversary of the battle, voted "that the 
Company extend to the Maryland Historical Society all 
the aid it can in accomplishing its noble purpose." 

During the summer the work was completed, and on 
October 12th, under the supervision of Hon. D. Schenck, 
the stone was placed in position, near the junction of the 
"Bruce road" and the old "New Garden road," fronting 
the post held by the men of the Maryland Line on the 
opposite hill, and commanding a view of the field over 

which they twice charged victoriously upon the choicest 
troops of the enemy. 

The ceremony of dedication was held on October 15th. 
The day was beautiful, and the picturesque grounds were 
brilliant with the varied hues of autumn, as well as with 
the red and blue of the National flag and the historic black 
a*Vid gold of Maryland. The line of battle was distinctly 
marked, sign-boards indicating the position of every 
regiment engaged, while most fittingly there floated a 
British flag over the spot where Colonel Stuart of the 
Guards fell, in a hand to hand fight with the Maryland 
hero. Captain John Smith. Glancing over the field it 
required but little imagination to people it again with the 
contending hosts, and to follow every movement in that 
supreme hour of conflict. 

At noon an appreciative audience gathered around 
the speaker's stand, where Rev. B. F. Di.xon, 
President of the Greensboro Female College, opened 
the exercises with a patriotic prayer. The chorus 
sang "My Country, 'tis of Thee " and Judge Schenck 
introduced the orator of the day. Professor Edward 
Graham Daves, a native of New Bern and resident 
of Baltimore, through whose efforts the Monument was 
erected. The subject of his address was "Maryland and 
North Carolina in the Campaign of i/So-'Si," and the 
speaker prefaced it by calling attention to the many 
battles of the Revolution, from Brandywine to Eutaw 
Springs, in which the troops of these two Colonies fought 
side by side. He gave a succinct but clear account of 
the Guilford campaign, and showed the important role 
played by the men of North Carolina and Maryland in 
the last act of the great Revolutionary drama. Their 
conduct under the brilliant leadership of Greene decided 
the issue of the war, and the British historian Stedman, 
who was the Commissary General of Cornwallis in this 
















campaign, acknowledges that its events "were of so 
momentous importance as to place within the grasp of 
the revolted Colonies the independence and sovereignty 
for which they had been so long contending." This 
scholarly paper of Professor Daves was afterwards read 
before the Maryland Historical Society, on November 
14th, 1892, and is printed in their Fund Publications. 

At the conclusion of this address, "Maryland, My 
Maryland!" was sung, and then Professor E. A. Alder- 
man, of the North Carolina Industrial College for Girls, 
delivered the response on behalf of the Guilford Battle 
Ground Company. He dwelt upon the sentiment of 
patriotism and the inspiration that coines from the scenes 
of heroic deeds; he accepted for North Carolina the gift 
from Maryland with reverent gratitude, and prayed that 
the massive granite block, with its legend of "Manly 
Deeds and Womanly Words," may stand forever a fresh 
and sympathetic bond of amity between the proud 
Commonwealth that gave it and the proud Common- 
wealth that received it. 

After the singing of "The Old North State," and the 
presentation of flowers to the speakers by the ladies of 
Greensboro, the whole company marched to the black- 
and-gold enwrapped Monuinent, where Miss Edith 
Hagan gracefully recited a poem by Mrs. ¥^. D. Hundley 
on the Battle of Guilford, and on its conclusion the 
Memorial was unveiled to the accompanying music of 
"Honour the Brave," and with greetings of enthusiastic 

The huge unhewn stone stands out grandly in its 
rugged simplicity, with which contrasts happily the 
artistic finish of the handsome bronze tablets. A lofty 
pole is planted near by, and from it floats on festal days 
the Urilliant heraldic flag which Maryland has inherited 
from the Lords Baltimore. 



Major John Daves, of Newbern, North CaroHna, was 
born in 174S in what is now Mecklenburg" County, 
Virginia. He was brought when very young to Craven 
County, North CaroHna, in which County, on September 
29th, 1750, a grant for six hundred and forty acres of 
land was issued by Governor Gabriel Johnston to his 
uncle, Richard Daves. William Daves also purchased 
land in Craven County as early as March, 1750, and in a 
deed bearing date 30th April, 1754, he is described as 
"late of the Colony of Virginia, but now of 'Newbern 

The ancestors of John Daves were English. The first 
of the name in this countr}' came from London about the 
middle of the 17th century, and settled in Virginia, in 
what was afterwards Chesterfield Count}'; whence his 
descendants moved into the counties to the Southward, 
and into North Carolina. The following extract from 
Smith's Obituary, P. 33, is said to refer to this family: 

"1652, December 24th. Died, John Daves, broaker; 
buried in St. Olave's, Old Jewry. His son, Thomas 
Daves, a bookseller, was afterwards an Alderman, and 
Lord Mayor of London, enriched by the legacy of Hugh 
Audley." To this Daves there is reference, under 
date of November 23rd, 1662, in Bohn's edition of Pepys' 

On 25th October, 1770, John Daves purchased from 
the Commissioners of the town of Newbern the premises 
occupied by him during his lifetime as his homestead; 
an unusual condition of the Commissioners' deed being 
that within eighteen months from the date of its 
execution there should be built on the land "a house at 
least 24x16 feet of stone, brick or frame," a failure to 
comply with which made void the conveyance. Shortly 


thereafter he married his first wife, Sally, daughter of 
John Council Bryan, a planter, of which marriage there 
was a son, John, who died in early childhood. 

In the stirring times previous to the Revolution, and 
during that war, the men of Newbern were active and 
prominent. Her Minute Men, under Caswell, bore a 
conspicuous part in tiie victorious campaign of Moore'? 
Creek, in the Winter of 1776, and it is said that John 
Daves then served as a private. Buit the first record we 
have of his services during the Revolution, throughout 
the whole of which he was in the field, is as Quarter- 
master of the Second North Carolina Regiment of the 
Continental Line, June 7th, 1776. This Regiment, vvith 
the First, participated in the successful defence of 
Charleston, South Carolina, in June, 1776, and the bearing 
and efficiency of the North Carolinians were highly 
commended by General Charles Lee. Soon afterwards 
all the North Carolina Continental Regiments, or 
Battalions, as they were then called, were brigaded 
under command of Brigadier-General James Moore. 
General Moore died in April, 1777, and the command 
devolved upon General Francis Nash, who was trans- 
ferred, with his Brigade, to the army of General 
Washington. These troops acquitted themselves with 
credit at the battle of Brandywine, in September, 1777, 
and were heavily engaged at Germantown, where they 
lost General Nash, Colonel Edward Buncombe and 
Lieutenant-Colonel Henry Irwin, of the Fifth Regiment, 
Captain Jacob Turner and many others. John Daves, .. 
. who had been commissioned Ensign in the Second 
Regiment, September 30th, 1776, distinguished himself . 
in this battle, and his commission as First Lieutenant 
bears its date, October 4th, 1777. With his comrades he 
.shared the miseries of the memorable Winter of 1777-78, 


at Valley Forge, the Brigade being then commanded by 
General Lachlan Mcintosh, of Georgia. 

In June following, by virtue of a resolution of Congress 
passed in May, 1778, the nine Regiments of the Brigade 
'were consolidated into four, and many of its officers were 
•retired, or assigned to other commands; Lieutenant 
Daves was among those retained. 

. At Monmouth, in June, 1778, the Brigade was next in 
action, and the winter of i778-'79 was passed at Morris- 
town. New Jersey. Two Companies of the Second 
Regiment formed part of the assaulting column of General 
Anthony Wayne at Stony Point, New York, July i6th, 
.1779, and were warmly commended by him for their 
gallant behaviour. Major Hardy Murfree commanded the 
detachment, and Lieutenant Daves, who was severely 
wounded in the attack, is said to have been a volunteer 
•in the "Forlorn Hope," led by Lieutenant Gibbon, of 
Pennsylvania, afterwards of Virginia. Lieutenants Daves 
and Gibbon, both of whom subsequently attained the 
title of Major, were ever after intimate friends. 

After his recovery. Lieutenant Daves went with his 
Regiment, in the Spring of 1780, to the relief of 
Charleston, South Carolina, and was made prisoner of 
war at the surrender of that city by General Benjamin 
Lincoln to Sir Henry Clinton, 12th May, 1780. By this 
calamity North Carolina was deprived, at a time of sorest 
need, of all her veteran Continental troops, many of 
whom, including their distinguished General, James 
Hogun, died while prisoners of war. Having been 
exchanged, Lieutenant Daves was assigned, January ist, 
1781, to the Third of the four new Regiments levied to 
supply the places of those lost at Charleston. These 
Regiments, raised and equipped only after incredible 
labor, were not organized in time to bear a part in the 
Guilford campaign, but three of them, constituting ihe 

Brigade of Cicneral Jethro Sumner, and officered b); 
veterans of long experience, won for themselves at 
Eutaw Springs, September 8th, 178 1, the highest enco^ 
miums for their bravery and steadiness. In his report of 
the battle, General Greene says of them: "I am at a 
loss which most to admire, the gallantry of the officers 
or the good conduct of the men." 

After the battle of Eutaw, General Sumner was recalled 
to North Carolina to punish and overawe certiin bands 
of Tories, one of which, under the notorious Davi4 
Fanning, had captured, at Hillsboro, on September 13th, 
1781. Governor Thomas Burke. Sumner's stay in North 
Carolina was short, for we find him, with his command, 
again in South Larolina, in February, 1782, at Ponpon', 
where, on the 6th of that month, there was a reassignr 
ment of the officers of the North Carolina Line, Captain 
John Daves — for on the day of the battle of Eutaw 
Springs he had been promoted to that rank — retaining 
his position in the Third Regiment. 

In April, 1782, Captain Daves married at Halifax, 
North Carolina, Mary Haynes, then in the thirty-first 
year of her age. She was the widow of Oroondatis 
Davis, of that place, and daughter of Andrew Haynes. 
Her mother, Anne Eaton, was a daughter of William, 
Eaton of Bute, (Warren) County, and Mary Rives, of 
Virginia, his wife. 

Upon the reduction of the Continental Army in January, 
1783, Captain Daves and most of his fellow officers were 
retired, and placed on "waiting orders" until November 
15th, 1783, when, with the return of peace, he was 
mustered out of service. By a resolution of Congress; 
passed in September, 1783, officers of the Continental 
Line, who had served for a certain length of time, were 
promoted one grade "by Brevet." The promotion, which 
was honorary only, was in recognition of Jong and faithful 


sfervice, and it was probably to this resolution that 
Captain Daves owed his title of Major, by which he was 
always known after the war. 

The State Society of the Cincinnati, composed of 
officers of the Continental Line, was organized at 
Hillsboro, in October, 1783, with General Jethro Sumner 
is President, and Rev. Adam Boyd as Secretary. Major 
Daves was one of the original members of the Society — 
iixty-two in all — but unfortunately it was short-lived. 
Public sentiment in this State, and elsewhere, was 
adverse to the Society at that time, and nothing is known 
of its existence since 1790. Its interesting records are 
probably lost, but it was represented in the meetings of 
the General Society, held in Philadelphia, in 1784, 1787 
and 1790, when it disappears from the record. The 
names and rank of its original members have, however, 
been preserved.* 

Major Daves was elected Collector of the Port of 
Beaufort, "with office at Newbern," by the Legislature, 
which sat at Hillsboro, in April, 1784, and at the same 
session an Act was passed authorizing the Continental 
Congress to collect duties on all foreign merch.mdise 
entering at the ports of the State. But in 1789 the State 
ratified the Constitution of the United States, and that 
prerogative having thereby passed to the General Gov- 
ernment, President Washington appointed John Daves, 
on the 9th of February, 1790, Collector of the Port of 
Newbern, and on the 6th of March, 1792, advanced him to 
"Inspector of Surveys and Ports of No. 2 District — Port 
of Newbern," an office held by him until his resignation 
in January, 1800. 

In May, 1787, Major Daves was elected one of the 
"Commissioners of the Town of Newbern," a body 

•t/niversity Magazine, No. 6, May, 1898, and January, 1894- 

,;«.v^,/< H'vi- — ^T"^ — > ' K'r VJ ^ ' 



' "" >v lie ^'''. . .*'«- 'I 





which, at that time and previously, had, in addition to 
its other powers, authority "To Grant, Convey and 
Acknowledge in Fee, to any person requesting the same, 
any lot or lots in the said town, not already taken up and 
saved." Many conveyances of these Commissioners are 
registered in the County of Craven. 

An Act of Assembly, passed in 1789, appointed John 
Daves and others vestrymen of Christ Church Parish, 
Newbern, a parish originally established by law in 1715, 
and first called Craven Parish. This Act was merely in 
the nature of a new incorporation, and for Church purposes 
only, whereas the vestries of Colonial days had been 
clothed with many of the powers of our County Commis- 

Major John Daves died in Newbern on the 12th of 
October, 1804, in the fifty-seventh year of his age. He 
was buried in that town, in Cedar Grove Cemetery, with 
military and Masonic honors, ai,id rested there until 
June, 1893, when his remains and the handsome monu- 
ment shown in our engraving were transferred by his 
grandsons, Edward Graham and Graham Daves, to 
Guilford Battle Field, where, in the perpetual and tender 
care of the Battle Ground Association, they now repose. 
Meet resting place, where sleep old comrades and 
former friends, for him whom his epitaph so well 
describes as 

"One of the well tried Patriots of our Revolutionary War." 

His widow survived Major Daves eighteen years. 
Their children were Sally Eaton, Mrs. Morgan Jones, 
whose many descendants are now in Arkansas and 
Mississippi; Ann Rebecca, Mrs. Josiah Collins, of 
Edenton, North Carolina; John Pugh Daves, whose 
children still live in Newbern, and Thomas Haynes 
Daves, whose numerous posterity live in Alabama and 


Edward Graham Daves, second son of John Piigh 
Daves and Elizabeth Batchelor Graham, was born in 
New Bern, March 31st, 1833. His grandfathers were 
Major John Daves, a gallant officer of the North Carolina 
Continental Line in the Revolutionary Army, and 
Edward Graham, a leading member of the bar of Craven 
County. Mr. Graham dying just before the birth of his 
grandson, to the latter was given his name. His father 
died when he was but five years of age, and all his after 
training he owed to the wisest and tenderest of mothers. 

His education began at the New Bern Academy, under 
the formal Lancastrian system of Alonzo Attmore, a rigid 
teacher of the i8th century type. Later he had the benefit 
of the genial instruction of Rev. ¥. M. Hubbard, afterwards 
Professor of Latin at Chapel Hill, and soon showed 
marked taste for the classics, being at the age of twelve 
at the head of his class as a student of Vergil and Cicero. 
His early boyhood was spent at New Bern, amid the 
refining and cultivating influences of the old town, then 
still in the after-glow of its brightest days; and the 
summer holidays were passed at Raleigh with his 
kindred, the family of Hon. William H. Haywood, or at 
Beaufort, at that time a seaside village of marked quaint- 
ness and simplicity in customs and character. 

This first phase in the life of young Daves ended in 
1847, when he was invited to the plantation of his cousin, 
Josiah Collins, on Lake Scuppernong, Washington 
County, there to prepare for College under private tutors. 
Mr. Collins was a man of wealth and culture, and his 
home was a centre of refinement and hospitality. The 
plantation was a type of the best Southern life of that 
day; every detail of the management was admirably 
systematized, and the government was like that of a 

a.'i^e^ . 







]:)erfectl\' organized principalits' under a mild and benefi- 
cent autocratic rule. Tiie only neighbours were the 
Pettigrevv family, and society had to be sought within 
the house, which in winter was filled with guests. For 
the children's education there was a resident instructor 
in English, the classics and mathematics, and another in 
French, German and music. Love of God, love of 
kindred, and love of country were diligently inculcated, 
and the standard of gentlemanlike conduct was that of 
Sir Philip Sidney — "High erected thoughts seated in the 
heart of courtesy." ; 

After three fruitful years passed amidst these surround- 
ings, Daves entered Harvard at the. .age of seventeen. 
This was his first glimpse of the outer world, and the 
change was great from the atmosphere of a Carolina 
plantation to that of a New England town. Harvard 
was then a mere College with a fixed curriculum; there 
were about three hundred undergraduate students and as 
many more in the professional schools, while now the 
total number in the University is more than three 
thousand. The Southerners were very few, but their 
influence in College life was out of proportion to their 
numbers. The President was Jared Sparks, the pioneer 
explorer among the archives of American history, and 
in the Faculty were Peirce, the great mathematician, and 
Longfellow. Among the students were President Eliot, 
Bishop Perry, Furness the Shakesperean, the younger 
Agassiz and Phillips Brooks. 

A diligent student and of social tastes, Daves was popur 
lar A'ith his associates, and was chosen President of various 
College Societies and Marshal of his class. In classical 
studies he was especially proficient, and he had the 
advantage of admirable instruction from Sophocles, a 
native Greek, the most thorough of teachers, and a 
perfect master of all Hellenic lore. Graduating in 1854 


with second honours, and with a prize for oratory, he 
entered the Harvard Law School, where he occupied 
himself both with legal studies and private teaching. He 
left Cambridge in 1856 with the degree of Bachelor of 
Laws, and after a short time spent in the office of Brown 
& Brune, in Baltimore, was admitted to the Maryland 
bar. Just then came the unexpected and flattering 
announcement of his election to the Greek Professorship 
at Trinity College, Hartford; the temptation was too 
strong for resistance, and law books were laid aside for 
his favorite classics. 

For five years he devoted himself to the duties of this 
position with diligence and success, and in the spring of 
1861 he sailed for Europe. Attending lectures for a 
short while at the University of Bonn, in the autumn he 
settled in Berlin. It was a most interesting historic 
epoch in the North German capital. William had just 
been crowned King of Prussia, and the initial measures 
of his memorable reign were the appointment of the then 
little-known Bismarck as Prime Minister, and the 
perfecting of that admirable army organization which 
was destined to revolutionize the military system of 
Europe. The intelligent looker-on in Berlin in that 
winter of 1 861 -'62 could see the rising of the curtain on 
the great political drama of our generation, the denoue- 
ment of which was the unification of Germany, the 
conquest of France, the founding of the Germanic Empire, 
the establishment of the Kingdom of Italy, and the 
downfall of the thousand-year-old edifice of Papal 
temporal power. 

Daves travelled much in Germany, studying and 
teaching, and moved to Paris in the spring of 1863, a 
brilliant moment at the French capital. Louis Napoleon, 
flushed with his victories in the Crimea and in Italy, was 
posing as the arbiter of Europe, and the Court of the 


Tuileries was the centre of highest poHtical interest. 
The Empress Eugenie, then at the meridian of her beauty 
and charm, was the acknowledged Queen of taste and 
fashion, and around her throne were fluttering the 
butterflies of every cHme. No eye could then see the 
handwriting on the wall, though the Emperor had 
already made his first great mistake, and, reckoning 
confidently on the success of the Confederate cause in 
America, was wasting the resources of France in the 
Utopian scheme of founding a monarchy in Mexico. 

After a year spent in France Daves made his home in 
Vevey on the Lake of Geneva, and there established a 
private school for American boj's. Five years were here 
passed in successful teaching, the routine life being 
broken by frequent journeys. In 1865 a month was spent 
at Rome, then still under Papal sway. It was that 
interesting period so vividly depicted in Crawford's 
Saracinesca. Pio Nono had returned from exile with his 
ardour for reform completely chilled, and had thrown 
himself .fully into the arms of the Jesuits. Reaction 
reigned supreme; every liberal aspiration was suppressed, 
and \ntonelli ruled the State with the skilful craft of a 
Machiavelli. The city was strongly garrisoned by 
French troops, on whose bayonets rested the Papal 
throne. The people, kept under control by stringent 
police regulations, seemed content and submissive, but 
many an incident showed that beneath the calm surface 
were dangerous elements of resistance and rebellion. 
At the races on the Campagna an English jockey 
happened to combine in his costume red, white and 
green, the colours of the new kingdom of Italy, and his 
appearance was the signal for demonstrations of wild 
enthusiasm. He won the race; and when the mob saw 
the proscribed Italian colours borne to the front, it could 
no longer brook restraint. The barriers were broken 


down, the crowd swarmed over the track, and tried to 
carry off both horse and rider in triumph. A riot ensued, 
and Rome's prisons that night were filled with the leaders 
of the insurgent populace. 

The World's Fair of 1867 attracted all travellers to 
Paris. The Second Empire seemed at the pinnacle of 
glory, though already Maximilian lay dead at Queretaro, 
and the bloody field of Koeniggraetz had shown 
Prussia to be the first military power of the world. The 
sovereigns, statesmen and illustrious men of every 
country in Europe crowded the P'rench capital, and were 
entertained with great military pageants intended to 
prove that France was invincible in arms. Baron 
Haussman's extravagance had made the city a marvel of 
beauty; society was never gayer or more brilliant; and 
the mere "looker-on in Vienna" left the capital of 
pleasure with the impression that France was alike happy 
in her social conditions and powerful in her political and 
military organization. 

In 1869 Daves moved with his pupils from Vevey to 
Florence, and took an apartment on the Piazza Pitti, 
from which, like Mrs. Browning from the neighbouring 
Casa Guidi windows, he could in fancy watch the 
succession of important events in the royal palace across 
the square, which had become the centre of Italian life 
and aspiration. Victor Emmanuel, the rough soldier- 
king, could be daily seen on the streets, greeted every- 
where with respect and affection, for he had kept the 
vow made on the fatal field of Novara, and the cross of 
Savoy had led the Italians to victory and independence. 
When the Princess Margherita arrived in Florence as the 
bride of Prince Umberto, the whole city blossomed out 
into daisies in honour of her name, and the emblematic 
flower was seen everywhere, adorning bonnets, em- 
broidered on gowns, or moulded into jewelry. On a 

dark snowy morning when she was holding a reception 
at the Pitti, the people crowded the Piazza and filled the 
air with vivas. She stepped out upon the balcony and 
stood for a moment bowing to the populace, her fair 
form in bridal dress standing out in bold relief from the 
dark background of the old palace, while the snow was 
falling upon her bare head and shoulders. A symbol of 
Italy coming forth in renewed youth and beauty from the 
storms of revolution, and behind her the gloomy grandeur 
of her historic past. 

On a summer journey in 1870, Daves reached Paris just 
as the tidings came of the choice of a Hohenzollern to 
the vacant throne of Spain. The effect was most dramatic ; 
the long-sought pretext for war was found, and all 
France went wild with excitement. Crowds gathered in 
the streets singing the Marseillaise and shouting "To 
Berlin! To Berlin!" and hardly a voice was raised to 
check the madness of the hour. The ignorance and 
infatuation of the authorities were criminal; none knew 
the power of Prussia, or how totally unprepared was 
France for the struggle. "We accept the responsibility 
with light heart," said the Prime Minister; the army is 
so well equipped, reported the Secretary of War, "that 
we can fight for two years without having to renew a 

Passing into Germany, Daves found there also intense 
feeling, but of a very different character; it was the grim 
determation of a great people to make any sacrifice 
rather than submit to further humiliation at the hands of 
a foe to whom they owed generations of wrong and 
suffering. All internal dissensions were hushed in love 
of country, and the patriotic strains of "The Watch on 
the Rhine" were heard from the Baltic to the Alps. It 
was inspiring to note the enthusiasm with which the 
Prussian Crown Prince was greeted as commander of 

the South German army, which only four }-ears before 
had faced him in the bitter civil war. He entered France 
before the enemy could reach the frontier, and a campaign 
of a single month shattered to ruin the Empire and its 
military power at Sedan. 

Returning to Italy in the autumn, Daves determined 
to travel with pupils in the Orient. Nearly three 
months were spent amidst the wonders of Egypt, and 
thence the journey was taken through the Suez canal 
to Syria, where began tent-life and genuine Eastern mode 
of travel. To transport, shelter and care for the party of 
eleven persons the dragoman provided eight tents, thirty- 
three servants and thirty-nine horses and donkeys. In 
perfect comfort was passed a month of delightful wander- 
ing in the Holy Land; Jerusalem, Bethlehem and 
Nazareth, the Dead Sea, the Jordan and Sea of Galilee 
were visited, and the inspiring journey ended on the 
picturesque heights of Mt. Carmel, whose base is washed 
by the Mediterranean. 

Coasting along the shores of Asia Minor, the travellers 
reached Constantinople, the meeting point of the tides of 
Asiatic and European life, and thence returned through 
the islands of the Aegean to Greece. In comparison 
with the civilizations of the East ancient Athens seems 
modern; but standing under the shadow of the Parthenon, 
or at Colonus listening to the nightingales of Sophocles, 
one feels that this is the most sacred shrine for the 
student pilgrim, and that here was done more than in 
any other land for the intellectual elevation of mankind. 
A new city is rising amid the picturesque ruins of the old' 
and with the healthful growth of her University Athens, 
after long dark centuries of slavery, is again radiating her 
beams of sweetness and light. It is a rare pleasure to 
listen to a lecture on Greek art or philosophy in the little 
modified language of Euripides and Plato. 


1^'rom the isthmus of Corinth the journey was down 
the Gulf, the dolphins of Arion playing in its blue waters, 
and the sacred slopes of Helicon and Parmassus rising 
from its shores. Out into the Ionian Sea, under the cliff 
of Sappho to Corfu, thence across to Brindisi, where the 
entrance gate to the Appian Way seems to welcome the 
wanderer and to lure him to Rome. But first to Cam- 
pania P>lix, the garden of Italy, which in the freshness 
of spring-time looks like an earthly paradise to the eye 
long accustomed to the grey rocks and sands of Egypt 
and Syria. A glimpse of Naples, of Vesuvius and Pom- 
peii, and then to the Eternal City, now become the 
capital of Italy. An audience was granted to Daves by 
Pio Nono, and touched by his refinement and gentleness 
one could but look with respectful compassion on this 
voluntary prisoner of the Vatican. The decree of the 
Council of July, 1870, promulgating the dogma of the 
Infallibility raised him to a height attained by no mortal; 
but hardly two months later the Italian troops captured 
the Holy City, and the ancient kingly dignity and tem- 
poral power of the Popes were at an end. 

The summer was passed in slowly travelling across 
Europe, taking en route the Tyrol, the wonderful Passion 
Play at Oberammergau, the battle fields of Gravelotte 
and Sedan, Paris, with its ruined palaces — Hei viilii, 
qitantiim inutatus cxb /7/(9— Rotterdam and London. 
Returning to America, after an absence of ten years, 
Daves settled in Baltimore, and devoted himself to 
private teaching and lecturing on literar}- topics. 
Recently his interest has centred in Colonial history, 
and he is an active member of the Cincinnati and of the 
Society of the Sons of the Revolution. Through his 
efforts and influence the Monument to the heroes of the 
Maryland Line has been erected on Guilford battle field, 
and he has organized a company for the purchase and 
preservation of Fort Raleigh, on Roanoke Island, the 
birthplace of Anglo-American civilization. 



Alderman, E. A., Sketch of- 122 

Battle Mouunient n 

Battle, Hon. K. P., Address on Brig. Gen. Jetliro Sumner -. 15 

Banks, Howard A., Report of Celebration, July 4, 1893- 20 

Battle, Hon. K. P., Address delivered July 3, 1893 83 

Banks, James, Letter in regard to the Battle loi 

" Battle-Ground Oak," Poem 99 

Banks, James, Sketch of .. no 

Barringer, Gen. Rufus, Sketch of 124 

Brevities, Historical 131 

Clyde Spring .. 12 

Crews, Caleb, gun carried in battle presented to G. B. G. Co 13 

Clark, Hon. Walter, Address on Gen. William R. Davie 16 

Celebration, July 4, 1893 _. ; 20 

Carr, Gov. Elias, Address of 64 

Cheshire, Right Rev. J. B., D.D., Address of --- 79 

Clark, Hon. Walter, Address of --- . ._- 81 

Cooper, Hon. J. W., Sketch of 121 

Charter of G. B. G. Co -- 138 

Daves, Capt. John, remains moved to Guilford Battle-Ground 18 

Dick, Hon. R. P., Address of . 73 

Davie, Col. William R., Sketch of 115 

Forbis, Capt. Arthur, Anecdote of 133 

Fry, Maj. John W ... --. 123 

Guilford Couit House, Description of the Town of i 

Greensboro, Court-house lemoved to _ 7 

Guilford Battle-Ground Company, Origin of . cS 

Graves, Hon. Jesse Franklin, Address of 88 

" Guilford Battle-Ground," Poem 97 

Gray, Col. Julius A., Sketch of 117 

Guilford Battle-Ground Company, Charter of - _. -^ 138 

Guilford Battle-Ground Company, Stockholders of 141 

Holt Monument, History of 19 

Holt Monument, Dedication Ceremonies 30 

Holt, Ex-Gov. T. M., Address 61 

Hundley, Mrs. E. D., Poem 97 

Hundley, Mrs. E. D., Sketch of 126 

Historical Brevities 131 

" Hunter Hiram at Guilford," Poem 94 

Knee Buckle, Webster's 132 



Lake Wilfong constructed ..-.._ _.. i6 

Legislature appropriates ^200 annually 10 

Leonidas Springs . 14 

Martinsville, name changed from Guilford Court House 7 

Museum erected . ._ 15 

Maryland Monument unveiled-- . 17 

Morehead, J. M., Poem by _ .. 99 

Militia of North Carolina, Vindication-- - _- 128 

Martin, Mrs. S. B., Poem by - . 135 

North Carolina Militia, Vindication of 128 

Programme, July 4, 1893, Celebration 28 

Pritchard, Rev. T. H., D.D., Prayer by 30 

Poem, " Winston's Volunteers " 59 

Poem, " Hunter Hiram at Guilford Court House " 94 

Poem, " Guilford Battle-Ground " ,. _ 97 

Poem, " Battle-Ground Oak " 99 

Poem, " Wilfong' s Wooing " 135 

Restaurant erected 17 

Rumple, J. W., Poem by 94 

Schenck, Hon. D., Address by -- 34 

Stockhard, H. J., Poem by 59 

Shepherd, Hon. J. E., Address by 66 

Sumner, Brig. Gen. Je thro, Sketch of 112 

Sloan. R. M., Sketch of .- 120 

Sword, Lieut. Col. Stuart's 133 

vStuart, Lieut. Col., Sword of -. 133 

Stockholders of G. B. G. Co , List of . 141 

Town of Guilford Court House, Description of i 

Troops, Number of, in battle 4 

Tate, Capt. James -- 15 

Webster's Knee Buckle -^ 132 

Webster's Brigade, Charge of . 127 

Wilfong, Lake, constructed 16 

" Wilfong's Wooing," Poem ..-. 135 

Winston, George T., LL.D., Address of 69 

' Winston's Volunteers," Poem 59 

Wittkowsky, Samuel, Sketch of 121 


Daves, Maj. John, Sketch of 6 

Daves, Prof. Ed. Graham 12 

Maryland Monument, History of 3 




Group of Directors 3 

Battle Map 6 

Gov. A. M. Scales 8 

Battle Monument lo 

Gov. Z. B. Vance — 12 

D. L. Clark, Artist H 

Spring Vale -- -- ^6 

Holt Monument 18 

Holt Guard [Paul W. Schenck] 20 

Col. Joseph M. Morehead 22 

Flag Station, Cape Fear and Yadkin Valley Railroad 28 

D. Schenck 34 

Samuel Wittkowsky, Esq 38 

Hon. A. S. Merrimon 52 

Prof. E. A. Alderman 59 

Gov. T. M. Holt 61 

Gov. Elias Carr 64 

Chief Justice James E. Shepherd-- --. 66 

George T. Winston, LL.D., President of the University 69 

Hon. R. P. Dick 73 

Bishop Cheshire 79 

Hon. Walter Clark 81 

Hon. Kemp P. Battle, LL.D 83 

Mrs. E. D. Hundley, Poetess 9^ 

Hon. J. W. Cooper loi 

Sumner Monument 112 

Col. W. R. Davie ii5 

Col. Julius A. Gray "7 

Leonidas W. Springs, Esq 118 

Robert M. Sloan 120 

J. W. Fry, Esq 123 

Gen. Rufus Barringer 124 

Lake Wilfong I35 

Lieut. Gov. Charles M. Stedman 140 


Maryland Monument 3 

Bronze Tablets 4 

Maj. John Daves 6 

Maj. John Daves' Tomb 10 

Prof. Ed. Graham Daves 12 



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